ISO repository of standards and innovation

This section contains a collection of articles, policy documents, academic research about standards, innovation and related issues such as standards and research and development, intellectual property rights,
Links to the full text are available in some instances. This material can be used for educational purposes as well as research, etc..

Please note, the majority of material in these repositories is not published by ISO. Please contact the publisher in order to find out more about how to use this material, licensing fees etc.

Title / Abstract Types Lang
Demand-led innovation policies in the United Kingdom - Biometrics standardisation
This chapter describes government support for standards development in the area of biometrics in the United Kingdom. It shows that standardization can play a significant role in creating and developing emerging technologies and can help ensure more efficient and cost-effective procurement.
Targets: Policy makers or regulators, Researchers (from university, business schools, research institutes)
Author(s): Aphrodite, K.
Research report, Policy document or policy guideline, Other English
Standardization: a catalyst for innovation
This presentation given as an inaugural address at the Rotterdam School of Management, Erasmus University describes the catalytic function of standards in relation to research, intellectual property rights and public procurement.
Targets: Policy makers or regulators, Researchers (from university, business schools, research institutes), Students, Business or company managers
Author(s): Blind, Knut (Rotterdam School of Management)
Presentation English
ISO 9000 certification and innovation: An empirical analysis for Luxembourg
The interest of policy-makers and academics for standards as tool for fostering innovation has considerably increased in the last decade. According to the current debate, standards can foster and hamper innovation at the same time. Addressing this debate, our research tests empirically whether the ... more
Targets: Policy makers or regulators, Researchers (from university, business schools, research institutes), Students, Business or company managers
Author(s): Mangiarotto, G. , Riillo, C.A.F.
Research report English
Role of standardisation in support of emerging technologies: A study for the Department of Business, Innovation & Skills (BIS) and the British Standards Institution (BSI)
This study explores some international approaches to the support of standards development for emerging technologies of national importance. In particular, the report investigates the different approaches for standards development within national innovation systems of the United States and Germany. ... more
Targets: Policy makers or regulators, Researchers (from university, business schools, research institutes), Technical staff in companies (engineers, technicians, ..)
Author(s): Brévignon-Dodin, L. (University of Cambridge), O'Sullivan, E. (University of Cambridge)
Research report English
The impact of standardization and standards on innovation - Compendium of evidence on the effectiveness of innovation policy intervention
In the past, standardisation and standards have often been perceived as a contradiction to innovation. This report provide conceptual arguments and empirical evidence that standardization as such and standards can be used to promote innovation especially in three different areas. After a brief ... more
Targets: Policy makers or regulators, Researchers (from university, business schools, research institutes), Students, Business or company managers, Technical staff in companies (engineers, technicians, ..)
Author(s): Blind, Knut (Technical University, Berlin)
Research report English
New type of standard for accessibility, designed to foster the competition and innovation of designers, developers, and project and business management.
This paper describes the many beneficiaries of accessibility to IT, creating a multifaceted business opportunity. Evolution is underway as some organizations and governments develop and adopt accessibility standards and regulations. But organized planning, design and development of technology ... more
Targets: Researchers (from university, business schools, research institutes), Technical staff in companies (engineers, technicians, ..), Other
Author(s): Albernethy, C.N.
Article English
Standards as a vehicle for industry development and innovation: case studies in Korea
This case study book covers Korea's experience in the adoption of International Standards and development of original standards as well as implementation and diffusion of standards. A total of 38 cases are introduced in seven fields:

1. Construction, environment and chemicals
2. ... more
Targets: Policy makers or regulators
Author(s): Main author - Lee, Heesang with 36 co-authors (Sungkyunkwan University and 36 different affiliations)
Book English
The impacts of innovations and standards on trade of measurement and testing products: empirical results of Switzerland's bilateral trade flows with Germany, France and the UK
Nowadays, the impact of the measurement and testing infrastructure on economic performance and trade is theoretically and even politically widely accepted. However, there are no empirical studies on this issue. The purpose of this paper is to elucidate the impact of innovative capacity and ... more
Targets: Policy makers or regulators, Researchers (from university, business schools, research institutes), Business or company managers
Author(s): Blind, Knut (Fraunhofer Institute for Systems and Innovation Research)
Article English
Luxinnovation - Autumn school, September 7, 2012
Presentation of national standardization activities in Luxembourg in relation to the network of CEN and CENELEC Research, Development and Innovation Correspondents (RDI-COR) initiative.
Targets: Researchers (from university, business schools, research institutes)
Author(s): Humbert, Jean-Philippe (ILNAS)
Presentation English
Oslo manual (2005) 3rd edition
The Oslo Manual is the foremost international source of guidelines for the collection and use of data on innovation activities in industry. This third edition has been updated to take into account progress made in understanding the innovation process, the experience gained from the previous round ... more
Targets: Policy makers or regulators, Researchers (from university, business schools, research institutes)
Author(s): Gault, Fred (Statistic Canada), Glaude, Michel (Eurostat), Tanaka, Nobuo (OECD)
Book, Manual English
Intelligent demand: Policy rationale, design and potential benefits
This paper provides the first complete draft for a project that the OECD is undertaking on demand-side innovation policies. The project involved two phases: in the first phase, a short paper was developed on policy rationale, different approaches to intelligent demand as well as some broader ... more
Targets: Policy makers or regulators, Researchers (from university, business schools, research institutes)
Author(s): Beltramello, Andrea (OECD), Nolan, Alistair (OECD), Pilat, Dirk (OECD)
Research report, Policy document or policy guideline English
One solution to the development of new standardization activities
UNI's action policy aimed at identifying new stakeholders and new markets for standardization.
Targets: Policy makers or regulators, Researchers (from university, business schools, research institutes), Business or company managers, Technical staff in companies (engineers, technicians, ..)
Author(s): Lensi, Ruggero (UNI - Italian Organization for Standardization)
Presentation English
How can standards ensure consumer protection? Bringing consumer protection to the heart of standards development
Policies and actions undertaken by UNI aimed at involving consumers in standardization and conformity assessment.
Targets: Other
Author(s): Lensi, Ruggero (UNI - Italian Organization for Standardization)
Presentation English
Social network effects on the extent of innovation diffusion: A computer simulation
Theories of innovation diffusion no longer focus exclusively on explaining the rate at which innovations diffuse or the sequence in which they are adopted. They also focus on explaining why certain innovations diffuse extensively, becoming de facto standards, whereas others do so partially or not ... more
Targets: Policy makers or regulators, Researchers (from university, business schools, research institutes), Other
Author(s): Abrahamson, E, Rosenkopf, L.
Research report, Article English
The role of standards in innovation
We review and explore the role of standards in innovation, with particular emphasis on design and manufacturing processes. We begin by defining and classifying standards and by exploring their role and infrastructure in society. This is followed by a similar discussion for innovation. By examining ... more
Targets: Policy makers or regulators, Researchers (from university, business schools, research institutes), Technical staff in companies (engineers, technicians, ..)
Author(s): Allen, R.H (University of Maryland, MD, USA), Sriram, R.G. (National NIST - Institute of Standards and Technology)
Case study, Article English
Intellectual property rights and standardization: The case of GSM
This paper investigates the role of intellectual property rights (IPRs) in the process of standardization in the telecommunications industry. We take the global system for mobile communications (GSM) case as a highly relevant example, being part of a high-tech industry in which standards play a ... more
Targets: Policy makers or regulators, Researchers (from university, business schools, research institutes), Business or company managers, Technical staff in companies (engineers, technicians, ..)
Author(s): Bekkers, R (Dialogic Innovatie & Interactie, The Netherlands), Smits, J (Eindhoven University of Technology, The Netherlands), Verspagen, B. (Eindhoven University of Technology, The Netherlands)
Article English
The role of quality standards in innovative service companies: An empirical analysis for Germany
Proceeding from theoretical hypotheses, driving forces for the introduction of the ISO 9000ff series in innovative service companies are analysed. Based on the European Community Innovation Survey (CIS), a probit model is estimated with different explanatory variables based on a sample of ... more
Targets: Researchers (from university, business schools, research institutes), Business or company managers, Technical staff in companies (engineers, technicians, ..)
Author(s): Blind, Knut (Fraunhofer Institute for Systems and Innovation Research), Hipp, Christiane (Technical University of Hamburg-Harburg)
Case study, Article English
Essential patents and standard dynamics
This paper examines the impact of essential patents on standardization. In particular, we analyze the influence of patents on the rate of standard replacement. We investigate whether essential patents contribute to a "lock in" of outdated standards, or rather encourage investment and increase the ... more
Targets: Researchers (from university, business schools, research institutes), Technical staff in companies (engineers, technicians, ..)
Author(s): Baron, Justus (MINES, ParisTech), Blind, Knut (Berlin University of Technology, Fraunhofer Institute for Open Communication Systems, and Rotterdam School of Management), Pohlmann, Tim (Berlin University of Technology)
Research report English
Emerging ways to address the reemerging conflict between patenting and technological standardizaion
The relationship between standards and intellectual property rights (IPRs) is a complementary but troubled one. The way it is managed affects the way stakeholders contribute to standards and may ultimately affect the way some technologies and even industries evolve. A spate of recent legal ... more
Targets: Policy makers or regulators, Researchers (from university, business schools, research institutes), Technical staff in companies (engineers, technicians, ..)
Author(s): Bekkers, Rudi (Eindhoven University of Technology), Blind, Knut (Berlin University of Technology, Fraunhofer Institute for Open Communication Systems, and Rotterdam School of Management), Iversen, Eric (NIFU - Nordic Intitute for Studies in Innovation, Research and Education)
Article English
Filing behaviour regarding essential patents in industry standards
This article addresses companies' filing behaviour in respect of patents relevant for standard-setting ("essential patents"). We discuss applicants' incentives to achieve conformity of patent applications with technology standards under development. Based on these incentive structures, we ... more
Targets: Policy makers or regulators, Business or company managers, Technical staff in companies (engineers, technicians, ..)
Author(s): Berger, Florian (Berlin University of Technology), Blind, Knut (Berlin University of Technology, Fraunhofer Institute for Open Communication Systems, Rotterdam School of Management), Thumm, Nikolaus (European Patent Office)
Article English
Driving forces for standardization at standardization development organizations
This paper investigates sector-specific driving forces for the standardization activities at national standardization organizations. In the first part, theoretical hypotheses concerning sector-specific standardization are derived. The empirical test is performed by a two-step procedure. First, ... more
Targets: Policy makers or regulators, Business or company managers
Author(s): Blind, Knut (Fraunhofer Institute Institute for Systems and Innovation Research)
Case study, Article English
The economics of standards, theory, evidence, policy
This book provides a comprehensive overview of the important topic of standards, which remains a vastly under-researched field of empirical inquiry. It presents a variety of interesting empirical analyses which reveal the driving forces and the economic impacts of standardization in both the ... more
Targets: Policy makers or regulators, Researchers (from university, business schools, research institutes)
Author(s): Blind, Knut (Fraunhofer Institute for Systems and Innovation Research, and University of Kassel, Germany)
Book English
Explanatory factors for participation in formal standardization processes: Empirical evidence at firm level
In contrast to the long tradition of empirical research into the innovation activities and R&D collaboration of companies, the issue of standardisation has been analysed mostly in theoretical approaches. This paper presents an empirical analysis of the participation of German companies in formal ... more
Targets: Researchers (from university, business schools, research institutes), Business or company managers
Author(s): Blind, Knut (Fraunhofer Institute for Systems and Innovation Research, and University of Kassel, Germany)
Article English
Driving innovation - Standards and public procurement
Public procurement has been found to be an effective instrument for demand-driven innovation policy. More than 10 % of Gross Domestic Product is spent by public authorities, representing a significant share of the total demand. In some areas, like information and communication technology, public ... more
Targets: Policy makers or regulators, Business or company managers
Author(s): Blind, Knut (Rotterdam School of Management)
Article English
Study on the interplay between standards and intellectual property rights (IPRs)
Intellectual property rights (IPRs) in standards have proven to be an intensively debated issue in industry bodies, in standard setting organisations (SSOs), in academic circles, and - increasingly - in court. While both standards and patents aim to promote innovation and market place adoption, ... more
Targets: Policy makers or regulators, Researchers (from university, business schools, research institutes)
Author(s): Bekkers, Rudi, Blind, Knut, Dietrich, Yann, Iversen, Eric, Köhler, Florian, Müller, Benoît, Pohlmann, Tim, Smeets, Stein, Verweijen, Jurgen
Research report, Case study English
Motives to patent: Empirical evidence from Germany
Against the background of the patent upsurge, we first analyse the role of patenting and alternative instruments to protect intellectual property, based on a sample of German companies active in patenting. In a second step, we investigate the motives to patent, considering sector and company size ... more
Targets: Policy makers or regulators, Technical staff in companies (engineers, technicians, ..)
Author(s): Blind, Knut (Fraunhofer Institute for Systems and Innovation Research, and Technical University of Berlin), Edler, Jakob (Fraunhofer Institute for Systems and Innovation Research), Frietsch, Rainer (Fraunhofer Institute for Systems and Innovation Research), Schmoch, Ulrich (Fraunhofer Institute for Systems and Innovation Research)
Research report English
Interaction between standardisation and intellectual property rights
The primary objective of the conducted study was to achieve a good understanding of the relationship between standardisation and intellectual property rights (IPR). Based on these insights, recommendations can be derived in order to improve their interface.
The generation of new knowledge, ... more
Targets: Policy makers or regulators, Researchers (from university, business schools, research institutes), Technical staff in companies (engineers, technicians, ..)
Author(s): Bierhals, R., Blind, Knut, Hossain, K., Iversen, E., Rixius, B., Sillwood, J., Thumm, N., Van Reekum, R.
Research report English
Driving factors of Dutch service companies to participate in formal standardization: Cross-sectoral and sector-specific evidence
The paper is motivated by the rising significance of the service industries and aims at testing whether this significance is adequately reflected within formal standardization at national standard bodies. The paper develops firm and industry-specific hypotheses on the driving factors to participate ... more
Targets: Policy makers or regulators, Business or company managers, Technical staff in companies (engineers, technicians, ..)
Author(s): Blind, Knut (Berlin University of Technology), De Vries, Henk J. (Rotterdam School of Management, Erasmus University), Wakke, Paul (Berlin University of Technology)
Other English
Breaking the monolith - differences in ascribed relevance of different standards types in different research contexts.
Standards are - stereotypically - believed to be relevant only as a diffusion catalyst for innovations, facilitating economies of scale, building critical masses, creating network externalities, and reducing costs of transaction of Information. Accordingly, Standards should not be relevant for ... more
Targets: Researchers (from university, business schools, research institutes)
Author(s): Blind, Knut, Gauch, Stephen
Other English
How stakeholders assess the impacts of ICT Standards
Assessing the impacts of standards is a challenging task. A survey instrument was developed aiming at assessing standards impacts from the point of view of stakeholders in the standard development process. The survey was administered to members of ETSI (European Telecommunication Standards ... more
Targets: Policy makers or regulators, Researchers (from university, business schools, research institutes), Business or company managers
Author(s): Blind, Knut (Berlin University of Technology, Fraunhofer Instute for Systems and Innovation Research, and Rotterdam School of Management), Gauch, Stephen (Berlin University of Technology), Hawkins, Richard (University of Calgary)
Case study, Article English
The impact of standards and patents on macroeconomic growth: A panel approach covering four countries and twelve sectors
Based on the assumption that codified technological know-how contributes to economic growth, this paper presents the estimation of a Cobb-Douglas production function, pooling data from four European countries and 12 sectors. The empirical results confirm that both the stock of patents and the stock ... more
Targets: Researchers (from university, business schools, research institutes), Other
Author(s): Blind, Knut (Berlin University of Technology, and Fraunhofer Institute for Systems and Innovation Research), Jungmittag, A. (University of Wuppertal, Germany)
Research report, Article English
Research and standardisation in nanotechnology: Evidence from Germany
Nanoscience and nanotechnology are science fields which are growing extremely dynamically. Germany occupies the top position in Europe and is only second to the US worldwide, which can be attributed to growing research promotion by the state. Based on a general conceptual framework on the role of ... more
Targets: Policy makers or regulators, Researchers (from university, business schools, research institutes)
Author(s): Blind, Knut (Berlin University of Technology), Gauh, Stephen (Fraunhofer Institute for Systems and Innovation Research)
Case study, Article English
Interrelation between patenting and standardisation strategies: Empirical evidence and policy implications
This paper analyses the relationship between strategies to protect intellectual property rights and their impact on the likelihood of joining formal standardisation processes. It is based on a small sample of European companies. On the one hand, theory suggests that the stronger the protection of ... more
Targets: Business or company managers
Author(s): Blind, Knut (Fraunhofer Institute for Systems and Innovation Research, and University of Kassel, Germany), Thumm, Nikolaus (Swiss Federal Institute of Intellectual Property)
Research report English
Alliance formation of SMEs: Empirical evidence from standardization committees
This paper explores the decision of small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) to participate in official standard setting alliances. Based on micro data of German firms in the electrical engineering and machinery industry, we show that innovation-related variables follow the predictions of our ... more
Targets: Business or company managers, Technical staff in companies (engineers, technicians, ..)
Author(s): Blind, Knut (Berlin University of Technology)
Case study English
Technology transfer and public policy: A review of research and theory
My purpose is to review, synthesize and criticize the voluminous, multidisciplinary literature on technology transfer. To reduce the literature to manageable proportions, I focus chiefly (not exclusively) on recent literature on domestic technology transfer from universities and government ... more
Targets: Policy makers or regulators, Researchers (from university, business schools, research institutes), Technical staff in companies (engineers, technicians, ..)
Author(s): Bozeman, Barry (School of Public Policy, Georgia Tech, Atlanta, GA 30332 USA)
Research report English
Research profiling for standardization and innovation
This paper addresses the profiling of research papers on "standardization and innovation" - exploring major topics and arguments in this field. Drawing on 528 papers retrieved from the database, Web of Science, we employed trend, factor, and clustering analyses to demonstrate that the ... more
Targets: Researchers (from university, business schools, research institutes)
Author(s): Choi, Donggeun (Korean Standards Association), Lee, Heesang (Sungkyunkwan University, Korea, Rep. of), Sung, Tae-kyung (Jeonju University, Korea, Rep. of )
Research report, Policy document or policy guideline English
What's in a name?
The activity of creating a "standard" often is called "standardization". A definition of the term "standardization" is derived by comparing existing definitions of standardization with the way the term is used in practice. The definition should be of help in gaining a better understanding of ... more
Targets: Researchers (from university, business schools, research institutes), Technical staff in companies (engineers, technicians, ..)
Author(s): De Vries, Henk (Erasmus University)
Article English
The empirical economics of standards
This study, commissioned by DTI (UK Department of Trade and Industry), is a very important contribution to the analysis of standardization's impact, as it is one of the most recent and comprehensive aiming to quantify the value of standards to the economy. The document presents the results of an ... more
Targets: Policy makers or regulators, Other
Author(s): Blind, Knut, Jungmittag, André, Spencer, Chris, Swann, Peter, G.M., Temple, Paul, Witt, Robert
Research report English
Review of policy measures to stimuate private demand for innovation. Concepts and effects.
This report introduces the logic of demand-based innovation policy and it reviews in more detail instruments that are primarily geared towards supporting private demand. The report defines demand side innovation policy as all public action to induce innovation and/or speed up the diffusion of ... more
Targets: Policy makers or regulators, Researchers (from university, business schools, research institutes)
Author(s): Edler, Jakob (Manchester Institute of Innovation Research)
Research report English
Evaluating the demand side: New challenges for evaluation
Evaluation of research and innovation policy faces radical challenges arising from a new policy emphasis upon demand-side measures and linked to this an understanding of innovation policy as a means to achieve societal goals. This article considers the implications for the practice of evaluation at ... more
Targets: Policy makers or regulators, Researchers (from university, business schools, research institutes)
Author(s): Blind, K. (Berlin University of Technology, and Fraunhofer Institute for Open Communication systems), Edler, J. (Manchester Institute of Innovation Research, MBS, University of Manchester ), Georghiou, L. (Manchester Institute of Innovation Research, MBS, University of Manchester ), Uyarra, E. ( Manchester Institute of Innovation Research, MBS, University of Manchester )
Research report English
ACEA position and recommendations for the standardization of the charging of electrically chargeable vehicles
The paper indicates the position and recommendations of the European Automobile Manufacturer's Association for harmonizing the charging interface between cars and relevant infrastructure with a view to achieving maximum interoperability within EU member states and highest consumer safety. ... more
Targets: Policy makers or regulators, Business or company managers, Technical staff in companies (engineers, technicians, ..)
Author(s): ACEA - European Automobile Manufacturers' Association
Policy document or policy guideline English
Innovation dynamics and the role of the infrastructure
This report shows how the role of the infrastructure - standards, measurement, accreditation, design and intellectual property - can be integrated into a quantitative model of the innovation system and used to help explain levels and changes in labour productivity and growth in turnover and ... more
Targets: Policy makers or regulators
Author(s): Frenz, Marion (Birkbeck, University of London), Lambert, Ray (Birbeck, University of London)
Research report English
The economic impact of role-based access control
Information technology has enabled U.S. businesses to improve their employees' productivity, integrate their supply chains, and automate and improve their interactions with customers. Increasingly, more functions, including inventory management, invoice payments, and customer support, are handled ... more
Targets: Business or company managers, Technical staff in companies (engineers, technicians, ..)
Author(s): Gallaher, Michael P. (RTI International, USA), O'Connor, Alan C. (RTI International, USA)
Case study English
An economic basis for open standards
This paper provides an overview of standards and standard-setting processes. It describes the economic effect of technology standards - de facto as well as de jure - and differentiates between the impact on competition and welfare that various levels of standards have. It argues that most of what ... more
Targets: Policy makers or regulators, Technical staff in companies (engineers, technicians, ..)
Author(s): Ghosh, Rishab A. (University of Maastricht)
Research report, Policy document or policy guideline English
Identification of future fields of standardisation. An explorative application of the Delphi methodology
This paper investigates the application of the Delphi methodology for the identification of future fields of standardisation complemented by a methodological extension by using various science and technology indicators. By the term standardisation, we broadly mean the process of developing and ... more
Targets: Policy makers or regulators, Other
Author(s): Blind, Knut (Berlin University of Technology, Fraunhofer Institute for Open Communication Systems, and Rotterdam School of Management), Goluchowicz, Kerstin (Berlin University of Technology)
Research report, Article English
Quality systems and standards for a competitive edge
During the last decade, economic growth in the fastest-growing developing countries, particularly China and India, has been accompanied by their rapid integration into world markets. This has created new opportunities for all countries but also new competitive pressures, and it has placed new ... more
Targets: Policy makers or regulators, Business or company managers
Author(s): Diop, Makhtar (World Bank), Guasch, J. Luis (World Bank), Racine, Jean-Louis (ANGLE Technology Group), Sánchez, Isabel (World Bank)
Book English
Economic value of standardization
The Standards Council of Canada (SCC) retained The Conference Board of Canada to undertake a study to examine the impact of standardization on the Canadian economy. The study involved a review of the standards-oriented economics literature, an empirical analysis of the impact of the collection of ... more
Targets: Policy makers or regulators, Business or company managers
Author(s): Haimowitz, Joseph (The Conference Board of Canada), Warren, Joanne (The Conference Board of Canada)
Research report, Case study English
INTEREST - Integrating research and standardization: What standards-setting bodies could do
Based on conceptual models and hypotheses about the interface between research and standardisation developed in the literature survey, a questionnaire was designed for participants of the 5th Framework Programme. In October and November 2005, more than 3,000 project coordinators were contacted via ... more
Targets: Policy makers or regulators, Technical staff in companies (engineers, technicians, ..)
Author(s): INTEREST project
Manual English
Interoperability cost analysis of the U.S. automotive supply chain.
The National Institute for Standards and Technology (NIST) is the only U.S. research laboratory or institute whose primary mission is supporting economic growth. As part of this mission, NIST provides technical infrastructure to U.S. based industries. NIST's Manufacturing Engineering Laboratory ... more
Targets: Policy makers or regulators, Technical staff in companies (engineers, technicians, ..)
Author(s): Brunnermeier, Smita (Research Triangle Institute, USA), Martin, Shiela A (Research Triangle Institute, USA)
Case study English
Trends and challenges in demand-side innovation policies in Europe
Demand-side innovation policies are important policy instruments aiming to increase the demand for innovations, to improve the conditions for the uptake of innovations or to improve the articulation of demand (Edler, 2007). Their potential is widely recognised and actively promoted. Famous success ... more
Targets: Policy makers or regulators
Author(s): Edler, Jakob, Izsak, Kincsö
Research report, Case study English
When do strategic alliances inhibit innovation by firms? Evidence from patent pools in the global optical disc industry
Research and development (R&D) consortia are specialized strategic alliances that shape the direction and scope of firm innovation activities. Little research exists on the performance consequences of participating in R&D consortia. We study the effect of patent pools, a unique form of R&D ... more
Targets: Policy makers or regulators, Business or company managers
Author(s): Amol, Joshi M., Nerkar, Atul
Case study, Article English
To join or not to join: Examining patent pool participation and rent sharing rules
In recognition that participation in modern patent pools is voluntary, we present empirical evidence on participation rates and the factors that drive the decision to join a pool, including the profit sharing rules adopted by the pool's founders. In most participation contexts, the at-risk group is ... more
Targets: Policy makers or regulators, Business or company managers
Author(s): Layne-Farrar, Anne, Lerner, Josh
Article English
The economic impacts of NIST's Data Encryption Standard (DES) program
The electronic transactions occurring routinely today in businesses and households have their
basis in technological developments of just a few decades ago. These include vastly improved
computing power, increased accessibility to communications through the development of the ... more
Targets: Policy makers or regulators, Other
Author(s): Chinworth, Michael W., Leech, David P.
Research report, Case study English
The economic benefits of NIST's role in the market transition to solid state lighting technology
This qualitative descriptive case study examines how the work of the National Institute of Standards and Technology in support of DOE's ENERGY STAR® program and the Solid State Lighting (SSL) industry has generated economic benefits for the U.S. economy.
Targets: Policy makers or regulators, Technical staff in companies (engineers, technicians, ..)
Author(s): Leech, David P. (TASC Inc.)
Case study English
Efficient patent pools
The paper builds a tractable model of patent pools, agreements among patent owners to license sets of their patents. It provides a necessary and sufficient condition for patent pools to enhance welfare and shows that requiring pool members to be able to independently license patents matters if and ... more
Targets: Policy makers or regulators, Business or company managers, Technical staff in companies (engineers, technicians, ..)
Author(s): Lerner, Josh (Harvard University, USA), Tirole, Jean (University of Toulouse, France)
Research report, Article English
ISO 9000 certification and innovation: An empirical analysis for Luxembourg
The interest of policy-makers and academics for standards as a tool for fostering innovation has considerably increased in the last decade. According to the current debate, standards can foster and hamper innovation at the same time. Addressing this debate, our research tests empirically whether ... more
Targets: Policy makers or regulators, Business or company managers, Technical staff in companies (engineers, technicians, ..)
Author(s): Mangiarotto, Giovanni (Research Centre Henri Tudor, Luxembourg), Riillo, Cesare, A.F. (Research Centre Henri Tudor, Luxembourg)
Research report English
Research on technology standards: Accomplishment and challenges
In this paper, we organize the fragmented management literature on technology standards according to a meta-theoretical scheme originally proposed by Astley and Van de Ven. We review over 89 relevant papers in influential journals in management, marketing and management-related disciplines. We ... more
Targets: Policy makers or regulators, Researchers (from university, business schools, research institutes)
Author(s): Chen, Tianxu, Narayanan, V.K.
Research report, Article English
Driving eco-innovation: The role of demand-side policies
This paper reports on progress of the CIIE (Committee on Industry, Innovation and Entrepreneurship) project on Green Growth and Eco-Innovation, and explores policies to support market creation and development for eco-innovation. It provides a preliminary analysis of selected case studies for the ... more
Targets: Policy makers or regulators
Author(s): OECD
Research report English
Demand-side innovation policies
This book examines dynamics between demand and innovation and provides insights into the rationale and scope for public policies to foster demand for innovation. It shows the potential - but also the limits - of using public procurement, regulations or standards to stimulate public and private ... more
Targets: Policy makers or regulators
Author(s): OECD
Book English
Patents and the performance of voluntary standard-setting organizations
Voluntary standard-setting organizations (SSOs) are a common feature of systems industries, where firms supply interoperable components for a shared technology platform. These institutions promote coordinated innovation by providing a forum for collective decision making and a potential solution to ... more
Targets: Policy makers or regulators, Technical staff in companies (engineers, technicians, ..)
Author(s): Rysman, Marc (Boston University), Simcoe, Timothy (University of Toronto)
Case study, Article English
Navigating the patent thicket: Cross licenses, patents pools, and standard setting
In several key industries, including semiconductors, biotechnology, computer software, and the Internet, our patent system is creating a patent thicket: an overlapping set of patent rights requiring that those seeking to commercialize new technology obtain licenses from multiple patentees. The ... more
Targets: Policy makers or regulators, Business or company managers, Technical staff in companies (engineers, technicians, ..)
Author(s): Shapiro, Carl (University of California at Berkeley)
Article English
Competing on standards? Entrepreneurship, intellectual property and platform technologies, in entrepreneurship: strategy and structure
Entrepreneurs often rely on intellectual property (IP) to earn a return on their innovations, and also compatibility standards, which allow them to supply specialized components for a shared technology platform. This paper compares the IP strategies of small entrepreneurs and large incumbents that ... more
Targets: Policy makers or regulators, Business or company managers
Author(s): Feldman, Maryann P. (Department of Public Policy, University of North Carolina, USA), Simcoe, Timothy, S. (Rotman School of Management, University of Toronto, Canada), Stuart, J.H. Graham (College of Management, Georgia Institute of Technology, USA)
Article English
Standards, innovation and the Australian economy
The report, Standards, innovation and the Australian economy, undertaken by the Canberra based Centre for International Economics studies the impact of standards on the Australian economy. It is part of Standards Australia's submission to the Australian Productivity Commission research study into ... more
Targets: Policy makers or regulators, Business or company managers
Author(s): Centre for International Economics, Canberra, Centre for International Economics, Sydney
Research report English
Why do standards enable and constrain innovation?
This presentation reviews a community innovation survey carried out among firms in the UK on the theme "Why do standards enable innovation and constrain innovation?". The conclusions of the survey suggested that firms who responded that standards inform innovation and regulations constrain ... more
Targets: Policy makers or regulators, Business or company managers
Author(s): Lambert, Ray (Department for Business, Innovation and Skills, London), Swann, G.M. Peter (Nottingham University Business School)
Presentation English
The economics of standardization: An Update
This report provides an update of the 2000 report for the UK DTI (Department of Trade and Industry): The Economics of Standardization. The present report does not displace the 2000 report for, in the author¿s opinion, everything in that earlier report still stands as an accurate account of the ... more
Targets: Policy makers or regulators
Author(s): Swann, G.M. Peter (Innovative Economics Limited)
Research report English
The economics of standardization: Final report for standards and technical regulations Directorate Department of Trade and Industry
This is a small study (20 days) of the economics of standards for the Standards and
Trade Regulation Directorate of DTI is in five parts that provide:
1. a literature review;
2. a simple overall model describing the economic benefits of standardization;
3. a discussion of the ... more
Targets: Policy makers or regulators
Author(s): Swann, G.M. Peter (Manchester Business School, University of Manchester)
Research report English
Standardization of technology-based markets
The complexity of modern technology, especially its system character, has led to an increase in the number and variety of standards that affect a single industry or market. Standards affect the R&D, production, and market penetration stages of economic activity and therefore have a significant ... more
Targets: Policy makers or regulators
Author(s): Tassey, Gregory (National Institute of Standards and Technology, USA)
Research report, Article English
The UK government public policy interest in standardisation 2009
This paper sets out the UK Government's public policy interest in standardisation in the UK.
Targets: Policy makers or regulators
Author(s): Department for Innovation, Universities and Skills
Policy document or policy guideline English
Standards dynamics through an innovation lens: Next-generation ethernet networks
The inherent need for stable standards is difficult to reconcile with the ITU aim to develop state-of-the-art standards, and combine standardization with innovation. Standards' change is then inevitable; the consequence is that it increases transaction costs and calls prior interoperability into ... more
Targets: Policy makers or regulators, Technical staff in companies (engineers, technicians, ..)
Author(s): Egyedi, T.M. (Delft University of Technology), Sherif, M.H. (AT&T)
Case study, Article English
Network effects, standardisation and competitive strategy: how companies influence the emergence of dominant designs
Network effects and standardisation are central to business success for many of today's high-technology companies. The ability of a firm to establish its technology as a dominant design or so-called de-facto standard is a critical determinant of its long-term competitive position. Which strategy a ... more
Targets: Business or company managers
Author(s): Ehrhardt, Marcus
Case study, Article English
Standardisation of infrastructure that supports innovation: The case of the Dutch EV charging infrastructure
The purpose of this research is to describe the standardisation for infrastructure that supports innovation. The case for this qualitative research is the charging infrastructure for electric vehicles in the Netherlands. Both the standardisation process and the types of standards that were ... more
Targets: Other
Author(s): Michel, C.I. (Utrecht University, The Netherlands)
Case study English
Competition policy and innovation
The question addressed by the paper is whether standard procedures and widely accepted insights of competition policy remain valid when one deals with potentially anti¿competitive conduct in innovative industries. The question of appropriateness arises because competition in these industries ... more
Targets: Policy makers or regulators, Business or company managers
Author(s): Encaoua, David (University of Paris, Panthéon-Sorbonne, EUREQua), Hollander, Abraham (University of Montreal, Centre for Research on Transportation)
Article English
Towards an increased contribution from standardisation to innovation in Europe
The European Commission identifies standardisation as an improvement instrument for fostering innovation. This document presents proposals for action to be taken by the relevant stakeholders to reform and streamline the European standards-setting system. It focuses on a greater contribution from ... more
Targets: Policy makers or regulators
Author(s): European Commission
Policy document or policy guideline English
Standardization, compatibility, and innovation
There are often benefits to consumers and to firms from standardization of a product. We examine whether these standardization benefits can "trap" an industry in an obsolete or inferior standard when there is a better alternative available. With complete information and identical preferences among ... more
Targets: Researchers (from university, business schools, research institutes), Other
Author(s): Farrell, Joseph (GTE Labs and Massachusetts Institute of Technology), Saloner, Garth (Massachusetts Institute of Technolo)
Article English
The complementary role of dominant designs and industry standards
Models of competition in innovative and standard-based industries have advanced considerably in recent years. Two terms that have become important competitive considerations are dominant designs and industry standards. This paper describes the potential for confusion between dominant designs and ... more
Targets: Researchers (from university, business schools, research institutes), Business or company managers
Author(s): Gallagher, S. (College of Business, James Madison University, Harrisonburg, VA, USA)
Article English
A case study of knowledge protection and diffusion for innovation: Managing knowledge in the mobile telephone industry.
The standardisation of interfaces in product architectures helps complementary products develop when network externalities are present. However, standardisation may also weaken a technology developer's competitive position when the product knowledge embedded in standardised interfaces becomes ... more
Targets: Business or company managers, Technical staff in companies (engineers, technicians, ..)
Author(s): Galvin, Peter (The University of Adelaide Business School, Australia)
Case study English
Science and technology in standardization: A statistical analysis of merging knowledge structures
The objective of this paper is to depict the knowledge array of standards. This is done by identifying and analyzing external effects, specifically spillover effects. The database used is Perinorm. We use a cluster analysis in order to create groups of technology fields for German standards ... more
Targets: Policy makers or regulators, Researchers (from university, business schools, research institutes)
Author(s): Friedrich-Nishio, Monika (Institute for Economic Policy Research, University of Karlsruhe, Germany), Gamber, Thilo (Institute for Economic Policy Research, University of Karlsruhe, Germany), Grupp, Hariolf (Fraunhofer Institute for Systems and Innovation Research, Karlsruhe, Germany)
Research report, Article English
Do regulations encourage innovation? - The case of energy efficiency in housing
This paper addresses the impact of building regulations on constraints and drivers for innovation. It seeks to clarify whether a supposed shift from prescriptive to performance-based regulations has improved the environment for technical innovation in energy efficient housing in Britain. We argue ... more
Targets: Policy makers or regulators
Author(s): Gann, David M. (University of Sussex, UK), Hawkins, Richard (University of Sussex, UK), Wang, Yushi (University of Sussex, UK)
Article English
Technical innovations, standardization and regional comparison - A case study in mobile communications
This paper studies the relationship between technical innovations and standardization, eliciting implications for an optimal role for standardization in the innovation processes, taking mobile communications as an example. An important role of standardization is to synchronize disjointed technical ... more
Targets: Policy makers or regulators
Author(s): Kano, Sadahiko (Institute for Japanese-European Technology Studies (JETS), University of Edinburgh, UK)
Research report, Article English
Innovation management and intellectual property in knowledge-oriented economies
This paper is an attempt to analyse the interface between and among innovation, technology, knowledge and intellectual property in today's global internet society. The purpose of this paper is twofold. We analyse the role of measurement and intangibility in the standard-making process of ... more
Targets: Policy makers or regulators
Author(s): Chen, Stephen (National Graduate School of Management, Australian National University, Canberra), Choi, Chong Ju (Cass Business School, City University, London, UK), Kim, Jai-Beom (School of Business, SungKyunKwan University, Rep. of Korea)
Article English
Standards-based computing capabilities for distributed geospatial applications
Researchers face increasingly large repositories of geospatial data stored in different locations and in various formats. To address this problem, the Open Geospatial Consortium and the Open Grid Forum are collaborating to develop standards for distributed geospatial computing.
Targets: Policy makers or regulators, Technical staff in companies (engineers, technicians, ..)
Author(s): Lee, C. (Aerospace Corporation), Percivall, G. (Open Geospatial Consortium)
Article English
Intellectual property rights and standard-setting organizations
The role of institutions in mediating the use of intellectual property rights has long been neglected in debates over the economics of intellectual property. In a path-breaking work, Rob Merges studied what he calls "collective rights organizations," industry groups that collect intellectual ... more
Targets: Policy makers or regulators, Researchers (from university, business schools, research institutes)
Author(s): Lemley, Mark A. (Stanford Law School)
Article English
Inter-consortia battles in mobile payments standardisation
Mobile payments can be seen as an innovation service offered by key players from the financial and mobile communication industries. Many believe that standards ensure the success of mobile payments. However, actors with heterogeneous interests cause the complexity in standards-setting process and, ... more
Targets: Policy makers or regulators, Business or company managers
Author(s): Lim, Andrew S. (Rotterdam School of Management, Erasmus University)
Article English
Industry-wide information systems standardization as collective action: The case of the US residential mortgage industry.
Vertical information systems (VIS) standards are technical specifications designed to promote coordination among the organizations within (or across) vertical industry sectors. Examples include the bar code, electronic data interchange (EDI) standards, and RosettaNet business process standards in ... more
Targets: Policy makers or regulators, Researchers (from university, business schools, research institutes)
Author(s): Markus, Lynne (Dept of Information and Process Management, Bentley College, Waltham, MA, USA), Minton, Gabe (Mortgage Bankers Association, Washington DC, USA), Steinfield, Charles W. (Dept. of Telecommunication, Information Studies and Media, Michigan State University, USA), Wigand, Rolf T. (Depts. of Information Science and Management, Cyber College, University of Arkansas, USA)
Case study, Article English
Minimum quality standards as a barrier to innovation
Most models of minimum quality standards do not deal with the dynamic nature of regulation. This note shows that presence of minimum quality standards may reduce firm incentives to innovate, leading to a lower level of social welfare under regulation.
Targets: Policy makers or regulators, Business or company managers, Technical staff in companies (engineers, technicians, ..)
Author(s): Maxwell, John W. (Dept of Business Economcs and Public Policy, Kelley School of Business, Indian University, IN, USA)
Article English
Optimal standardization in the law of property: The numerus Clausus principle
In all postfeudal legal systems, the basic ways of owning property are limited in number and standardized, in the sense that courts will enforce as property only interests that are built from a list of recognized forms. In the common law, this principle has no name and is invoked only ... more
Targets: Policy makers or regulators, Researchers (from university, business schools, research institutes)
Author(s): Merrill, Thomas W. (Northwestern University), Smith, Henry E. (Northwestern University)
Article English
Permits, standards, and technology innovation
I compare environmental R&D incentives offered by four policy instruments - emission
standards, performance standards, tradeable permits, and auctioned permits - in the presence
of oligopoly permits and output markets. Because R&D incentives depend on direct and
strategic effects, ... more
Targets: Policy makers or regulators, Researchers (from university, business schools, research institutes), Other
Author(s): Montero, Juan Pablo (Catholic University of Chile; and Massachusetts Institute of Technology, USA)
Article English
Toward a systematic framework for research on dominant designs, technological innovations, and industrial change
The concept of a dominant design has taken on a quasi-paradigmatic status in analyses of the link between technological and industrial dynamics. A review of the empirical literature reveals a variety of interpretations about some aspects of the phenomenon such as its underlying causal mechanisms ... more
Targets: Researchers (from university, business schools, research institutes)
Author(s): Frenken, Koen (Faculty of Geosciences, Utrecht University, Netherlands), Murmann, Johann Peter (Australian Graduate School of Management)
Research report, Article English
When does the ISO 9000 quality assurance standard lead to performance improvement? Assimilation and going beyond
ISO 9000 is a management standard that provides customers with assurance that their registered suppliers have a consistent quality system to which they adhere. This paper draws on four sources to show how ISO 9000 can lead to performance improvement: 1) theories of induced innovation and ... more
Targets: Business or company managers, Technical staff in companies (engineers, technicians, ..)
Author(s): Marcus, A.A. (Faculty of Industrial Engineering and Management, Technion - Israel Institute of Technology), Naveh, E. (Faculty of Industrial Engineering and Management, Technion - Israel Institute of Technology)
Case study, Article English
The influence of different characteristics of the EU environmental management and auditing scheme on technical environmental innovations and economic performance
Environmental modernization of the economy includes the implementation of environmental policies which connect environmental management to technical environmental innovations and improved economic performance. Some of the most important instruments in this respect are standards for environmental ... more
Targets: Policy makers or regulators, Business or company managers
Author(s): Ankele, Kathrin (Institute for Ecological Economy Research, Berlin, Germany), Hoffmann, Esther (Institute for Ecological Economy Research, Berlin, Germany), Rennings, Klaus (Centre for European Economic Research, Mannheim, Germany), Ziegler, Andreas (Centre for European Economic Research, Mannheim, Germany)
Research report, Case study, Article English
Standards and innovation: What relationship? A literature review
This is a presentation of a study carried out by the Henri Tudor Pubilc Research Centre to determine the relationship between standards and innovation. It provides definitions, the methodology applied, perspectives for standards and innovation, a conceptual framework, and the limitations and ... more
Targets: Policy makers or regulators, Researchers (from university, business schools, research institutes)
Author(s): Riillo, Cesare (Public Research Centre Henri Tudor, Luxembourg)
Presentation English
The European standard family and its basis
The Eurocodes as European unified design rules for structures are part of the European Standard Family comprising also product standards, testing standards, standards for execution, European Technical Approvals and European Technical Approval Guidelines. A key feature of all these standards is ... more
Targets: Policy makers or regulators
Author(s): Müller, Christian (Institute of Steel Construction, Aachen, Germany), Sedlacek, Gerhard (Institute of Steel Construction, Aachen, Germany)
Research report, Article English
The relationship between standardization and innovative activity: An exploratory study on Korean service firms
The paper analyzes the effects of standards and standardization on innovative activities in Korean service firms. R&D intensity and patent application are used as proxies for innovative activity. The variables of standardization activity are standardization management at the firm level, domestic ... more
Targets: Policy makers or regulators, Business or company managers
Author(s): Sung, Tae-Kyung (School of Management, Jeonju University, Rep. of Korea)
Case study, Article English
Standardisation and particularisation in services: Evidence from Germany
Services have been widely neglected by economists and analysts of innovation, who have instead focused on manufacturing. One of the widely supposed features of services outputs is that they are often highly tailored to their clients. In practice, however, services are sometimes mass-produced and ... more
Targets: Policy makers or regulators, Researchers (from university, business schools, research institutes)
Author(s): Hipp, Christiane (Mannesmann Pilotentwicklung, Munich / Dept of Technology and Innovation Management, Technical University of Hamburg, Germany), Miles, Ian (CRIC and PREST, University of Manchester, UK), Tether, Bruce S. (ESRC Centre for Research on Innovation & Competition (CRIC), University of Manchester, UK)
Research report, Article English
Standardisation of heavy metal biosorption tests: Equilibrium and modelling study
The use of some microorganisms to remove heavy metals from contaminated industrial wastewaters may represent an innovative purification process. Several aspects must be taken into consideration for complete process development. Standardisation of the experimental procedures, equilibrium and kinetic ... more
Targets: Policy makers or regulators, Researchers (from university, business schools, research institutes), Technical staff in companies (engineers, technicians, ..)
Author(s): Esposito, A. (Faculty of Engineering, University of Genoa, Italy), Reverberi, A.P. (Faculty of Engineering, University of Genoa, Italy), Veglio, F. (Dept of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Materials, University of L'Aquila, Italy)
Research report, Article English
The role of standards in innovation and diffusion of broadband mobile services: The case of South Korea
We explore the evolution of the mobile infrastructure in South Korea through the lens of actor
network theory. In particular, we analyze the roles of standards in promoting, enabling and
constraining innovation in broadband mobile services over a 10-year period. During this ... more
Targets: Policy makers or regulators, Business or company managers
Author(s): Lyytinen, Kalle (Weatherhead School of Management, Case Western Reserve University, USA), Yang, Heedong (College of Management, Ewha Womans University, Rep. of Korea), Yoo, Youngjin (Weatherhead School of Management, Case Western Reserve University, USA )
Case study, Article English
New type of standard for accessibility, designed to foster the competition and innovation of designers, developers, and project and business management.
This paper describes the many beneficiaries of accessibility to IT, creating a multifaceted business opportunity. Evolution is underway as some organizations and governments develop and adopt accessibility standards and regulations. But organized planning, design and development of technology ... more
Targets: Policy makers or regulators, Technical staff in companies (engineers, technicians, ..)
Author(s): Abernethy, Charles N. (Behavioural Implications Management, USA)
Article English
Interpellative sociology of pharmaceuticals: Problems and challenges for innovation and regulation in the 21st century
This paper develops a framework with which to interrogate how well pharmaceutical innovation and regulation are performing to produce drugs that improve health. That framework comprises five key dimensions: therapeutic advance of drug product innovations; safety standards in drug testing; use of ... more
Targets: Policy makers or regulators, Researchers (from university, business schools, research institutes)
Author(s): Abraham, John (University of Sussex, UK), Davis, Courtnex (University of Sussex, UK)
Article English
Progress, innovation and regulatory science in drug development: The politics of international standard-setting
This paper examines international standard-setting in the toxicology of pharmaceuticals during the 1990s, which has involved both the pharmaceutical industry and regulatory agencies in an organization known as the International Conference on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration ... more
Targets: Policy makers or regulators, Researchers (from university, business schools, research institutes), Other
Author(s): Abraham, John (University of Sussex, UK), Reed, Tim (University of Sussex, UK)
Research report, Article English
Software standards and the laboratory information system
Software standards simplify communication and cooperation between applications provided by different software vendors. However, adherence to a rigid standard can stifle innovation. Open standards, which are not proprietary to any particular vendor, are particularly useful. Many standard-setting ... more
Targets: Policy makers or regulators, Researchers (from university, business schools, research institutes)
Author(s): Aller, Raymond D. (Dept. of Pathology, University of Utah Health Sciences Center, USA)
Article English
Patent rights and innovative activity: evidence from national and firm-leval data
Global standards of patent protection have been strengthened and harmonized in recent years. Despite the heated policy debates and theoretical controversies, empirical studies of the consequences for innovative activity are scant. This paper contributes to the debate by providing an empirical ... more
Targets: Policy makers or regulators, Researchers (from university, business schools, research institutes)
Author(s): Allred, Brent B. (Mason School of Business, The College of William & Mary, Williamsburg, VA, USA), Park, Walter G. (Dept of Economics, American University, Washington DC, USA)
Research report, Article English
Global standards and the environmental performance of industry
In this paper we examine the emergence of firm-based global environmental standards as an approach to managing the environmental performance of complex global production networks. Firm-based global environmental standards exist when a firm defines a uniform set of process and product environmental ... more
Targets: Policy makers or regulators, Researchers (from university, business schools, research institutes)
Author(s): Angel, David, P., Rock, Michael T.
Case study, Article English
Assimilation of interorganizational business process standards
Organizations have not fully realized the benefits of interorganizational relationships (IORs) due to the lack of cross-enterprise process integration capabilities. Recently, interorganizational business process standards (IBPS) enabled by information technology (IT) have been suggested as a ... more
Targets: Business or company managers, Technical staff in companies (engineers, technicians, ..)
Author(s): Bala, Hillol (Walton College of Business, University of Arkansas, USA), Venkatesh, Viswanath (Walton College of Business, University of Arkansas, USA)
Case study, Article English
Endurance testing of hip prostheses: a comparison between the load fixed in ISO 7206 standard and the physiological loads
Background: Pre-clinical endurance validation of innovative hip prostheses femoral components are carried out following the ISO 7206 standard. The in vitro fatigue test must simulate accurately the physiological load to correctly define the section of the stem.
Objective: This study ... more
Targets: Technical staff in companies (engineers, technicians, ..), Other
Author(s): Baleani, Massimiliano (Laboratory for Biomaterials Technology, Rissoli Orthopaedic Institute, Italy), Cristofolinin, Luca (Mechanical Engineering Dept, University of Bologna, Italy)
Case study, Article English
Public policy for energy technology innovation - A historical analysis of fluidized bed combustion development in the USA
This paper analyzes the role of public policy in the development of atmospheric fluidized bed combustion (AFBC) of coal for power generation in the United States. AFBC is at present a mature technology for power generation up to the size of 250 MW. The technology has mainly been used by ... more
Targets: Policy makers or regulators
Author(s): Bañales-López, Santiago (AT. Kearney Inc., MA, USA), Norberg-Bohm, Vicki (Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs, John F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University, USA)
Case study, Policy document or policy guideline, Article English
Canada-wide standards and innovative transboundary air quality initiatives
Canada's approach to air quality management is one that has brought with it opportunities for the development of unique approaches to risk management. Even with Canada's relatively low levels of pollution, science has demonstrated clearly that air quality and ecosystem improvements are worthwhile. ... more
Targets: Policy makers or regulators
Author(s): Barton, Jane (International Smog Program, Air Pollution Prevention Directorate, Environment Canada)
Policy document or policy guideline, Article English
The impact of innovation on a polluting firm's regulation driven decision to upgrade its capital stock
The extant literature has paid scant theoretical attention to the tripartite interaction among increasing environmental regulations, the resulting decision by a polluting firm to upgrade its capital stock, and the impact of innovation on this decision. Hence, the authors theoretically analyze this ... more
Targets: Policy makers or regulators, Business or company managers
Author(s): Batabyal, Amitrajeet (Rochester Institute of Technology, USA), Nijkamp, Peter (Free University, Amsterdam, Netherlands)
Case study, Article English
Government regulation as an impetus for innovation: Evidence from energy performance regulation in the Dutch residential building sector
The recent implementation of energy performance policy as a way to tackle energy consumption in the building sector in Europe draws attention to the effect it has on the development and diffusion of energy-saving innovations. According to innovation system literature, government regulation through ... more
Targets: Policy makers or regulators
Author(s): Beerepoot, Milou (OTB Research Institute for Housing, Delft University of Technology, Netherlands), Beerepoot, Niels (Amsterdam Institute for Metropolitan and International Development Studies, University of Amsterdam, Netherlands)
Policy document or policy guideline, Article English
South Africa's rapid electrification programme: Policy, institutional, planning, financing and technical innovations
This paper documents South Africa's electrification programme from the late 1980s to the present. The primary aim of the paper is to present the reader with an overview of the policy, institutional, planning, financing and technological developments and innovations that resulted in more than 5 ... more
Targets: Policy makers or regulators, Other
Author(s): Bekker, Bernard (Dept of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and The Built Environment, University of Cape Town, South Africa), Eberhard, Anton (Graduate School of Business, University of Cape Town, South Africa), Gaunt, Trevor (Dept of Electrical Engineering, University of Cape Town, South Africa), Marquard, Andrew (Energy Research Centre, University of Cape Town, South Africa)
Article English
Internal infrastructural impacts on RFID perceptions and commitment: Knowledge, operational procedures, and information-processing standards
For many firms, radio frequency identification (RFID) suggests not only a new alternative to existing tracking methods but also a means to a range of previously cost-prohibitive internal control and supply chain coordination innovations. In any event, and even in light of possible external ... more
Targets: Business or company managers
Author(s): Bendoly, Elliot (Goizueta Business School, Emory University, USA), Citurs, Alex (Eastern Connecticut State University, USA ), Konsynski, Benn (Goizueta Business School, Emory University, USA)
Case study, Article English
Market barriers for welfare product innovations
New products that are based on higher animal welfare standards encounter several barriers on the road to market acceptance. The authors focus on the Dutch poultry sector and distinguish between retailer and consumer barriers. Retailer barriers include the powerful position of retailers, the price ... more
Targets: Policy makers or regulators, Business or company managers
Author(s): Binnekamp, M.H.A (Marketing and Consumer Behaviour Group, Wageningen University, Netherlands), Ingenbleek, P.T.M. (Agricultural Economics Research Institute, Wageningen University and Research Group, Netherlands)
Case study, Article English
Cheese innovation: market driven vs. regulatory standards
Sale and consumption of cheese, whether as a table cheese or cheese used as an ingredient is our ultimate goal. What factors drive this consistent and enhanced demand for cheese? Is it price, regulations, market signals, cultural history, or innovation? Price is a huge factor that is difficult, at ... more
Targets: Policy makers or regulators, Business or company managers
Author(s): Bishop, Rusty (Dairy Industry Association of Australia)
Research report, Article English
Growing innovation policy: the case of organic agriculture in Ontario, Canada
A case study of innovation in organic agriculture in Ontario, Canada, illustrates the merits of multiscaled analysis as a tool to identify relevant policy options for the European Union and North America. Policy recommendations that emerged from interviews included the need to: develop and ... more
Targets: Policy makers or regulators
Author(s): Blay-Palmer, Alison
Case study, Article English
A taxonomy of standards in the service sector: Theoretical discussion and empirical test
Based on the peculiarities of services the different typologies of service standards are discussed. Against this background, a survey among European service companies addressed the question of in which service-related categories formal and informal standards are implemented. In total 364 European ... more
Targets: Policy makers or regulators, Business or company managers
Author(s): Blind, Knut (Technical University of Berlin, Fraunhofer Institute for Systems and Innovation Research, Karlsruhe, Germany)
Case study, Article English
Trade and the impact of innovations and standards: the case of Germany and the UK
The effects of patents as indicators for innovations and standards on German trade performance are analysed in general and German British trade in detail. The latter analysis goes a step further than the approach of Swann et al. (1996) and is based on a broader and more detailed database. The ... more
Targets: Policy makers or regulators, Business or company managers
Author(s): Blind, Knut (Fraunhofer Institute for Systems and Innovation Research, Germany), Jungmittag, Andre (Macroeconomic Theory and Policy, FBB, University of Wuppertal, Germany)
Research report, Article English
Entry strategies under competing standards: Hybrid business models in the open source software industry
The paper analyzes the strategies of software firms that have entered the open source (OS) field. The notion of the OS business model is discussed in the light of a substantial body of theoretical literature concerning strategic management and the economics of innovation, as well as specialized ... more
Targets: Policy makers or regulators, Technical staff in companies (engineers, technicians, ..)
Author(s): Bonaccorsi, Andrea (Dept of Electrical Systems and Automation, University of Pisa, Italy), Giannangeli, Silvia (Sant'Anna School of Advanced Studies, Pisa, Italy), Rossi, Cristina (Politecnico di Milano, Italy)
Case study, Article English
Regulation and innovation in the telecommunications industry
This paper aims to introduce issues that relate regulation and innovation in the telecommunications industry. We try to address the following question: which types of regulatory schemes are likely to promote innovation in a fast-growing telecommunications industry? Section 2 analyses ex ante ... more
Targets: Policy makers or regulators
Author(s): Bourreau, Marc (France Télécom), Do¿an, Pinar (UT-1, University of Social Sciences, Toulouse, France)
Case study, Article English
Developing health information systems in developing countries: The flexible standards strategy
The development of appropriate integrated and scalable information systems in the health sector in developing countries has been difficult to achieve, and is likely to remain elusive in the face of continued fragmented funding of health programs, particularly related to the HIV/AIDS epidemic. In ... more
Targets: Policy makers or regulators, Other
Author(s): Braa, Jørn (Dept of Informatics, University of Oslo, Norway), Hanseth, Ole (Dept of Informatics, University of Oslo, Norway), Heywood, Arthur (School of Public Health, University of Cape, South Africa)
Case study, Article English
Environmental innovation and the cost of pollution abatement revisited
It is widely assumed in the literature that environmental innovation reduces the marginal cost of pollution abatement. In this paper we show that this is not necessarily the case and we provide some unexpected outcomes.
Targets: Policy makers or regulators, Technical staff in companies (engineers, technicians, ..)
Author(s): Bréchet, Thierry (Center for Operations Research and Econometrics, Catholic University of Louvain, Belgium), Jouvet, Pierre-André (EconomiX, Universite of Nanterre, France)
Article English
International standard for future automotive 42 V supply voltages (PowerNet)
The development of innovative automotive systems is determined by the demand for cut in fuel consumption and increase in fuel efficiency, reduction of environmental pollution and comfort improvement. A basic condition for such developments is the introduction of a 42 V power supply in future ... more
Targets: Policy makers or regulators, Technical staff in companies (engineers, technicians, ..)
Author(s): Bremer, Wolfgang (Robert Bosch GmbH, Stuttgart, Germany)
Article English
Sustainability and the performance concept: encouraging innovative environmental technology in construction
Encouragement of innovation is a major reason for using the performance concept in construction regulations and specifications, mostly in the context of design-build contracts. Performance criteria aiming at sustainability emphasize long term behaviour of built facilities, which complicates the ... more
Targets: Policy makers or regulators, Technical staff in companies (engineers, technicians, ..)
Author(s): Ang, George K.I. (Government Building Agency, The Hague, Netherlands), Bröchner, Jan (School of Technology Mgt & Economics, University of Technology, Göteborg, Sweden)
Case study, Article English
Linux - a platform for innovation in converged mobile handsets
The work within the convergent terminals and applications research theme, within BT's Research and Venturing organisation, investigates the emerging trends in the entire device ecosystem - including components, hardware and software issues for future mobile devices, as enablers for future service ... more
Targets: Business or company managers, Technical staff in companies (engineers, technicians, ..)
Author(s): Brown, G.N.
Article English
A note on permits, standards, and technological innovation
Montero (J. Environ. Econom. Manage. 44 (2002) 23) contrasts the incentives to invest in new abatement technologies under different regulatory instruments and argues that one needs to consider the induced output effects that derive from lower abatement costs. Montero shows that, once one takes into ... more
Targets: Policy makers or regulators, Researchers (from university, business schools, research institutes)
Author(s): Bruneau, Joel, F. (University of Saskatchewan, Canada)
Research report, Article English
Life-cycle flexibility: How to measure and improve the innovative capability in turbulent environments
Managing innovation in rapidly moving environments, such as Interned-based services, is a major challenge for the consolidated theories on product and service development. The innovation management literature identifies flexibility as the right way for coping with these challenges. By increasing ... more
Targets: Business or company managers
Author(s): Buganza, Thomas, Verganti, Roberto
Article English
The standardization problem - An economic analysis of standards in information systems
Choosing the right set of communication standards is fundamental in any kind of interaction, especially in the coordination of economic activities. This decision problem, generally referred to as "the standardization problem", mainly results from interdependencies due to positive network ... more
Targets: Researchers (from university, business schools, research institutes)
Author(s): Buxman, Peter (Institute of Information Systems, J.W. Goethe-University, Frankfurt, Germany), König, Wolfgang (Institute of Information Systems, J.W. Goethe-University, Frankfurt, Germany), Weitzel, Tim (Institute of Information Systems, J.W. Goethe-University, Frankfurt, Germany), Westarp, Falk v. (Institute of Information Systems, J.W. Goethe-University, Frankfurt, Germany)
Research report English
Are more innovative firms less vulnerable to new environmental regulation?
Compliance with pollution limits and standards requires firms to implement adaptation processes that are not only costly themselves but also affect future profits in as much as they modify production systems and methods. This paper attempts to respond to the question of how technological knowledge ... more
Targets: Policy makers or regulators, Business or company managers
Author(s): Cañón-De-Francia, Joaquín (Dept of Economics and Business Management, University of Zaragoza, Spain), Garcés-Ayerbe, Concepción (Dept of Economics and Business Management, University of Zaragoza, Spain), Ramírez-Alesón, Marisa (Dept of Economics and Business Management, University of Zaragoza, Spain)
Case study, Article English
Interface strategies in modular product innovation
Modular architectural approach has been an important perspective in product innovation research. In this study, we have tried to build a basic theory for understanding interface strategies in modular product innovation through a literature review that covers a number of concepts including product ... more
Targets: Business or company managers, Technical staff in companies (engineers, technicians, ..)
Author(s): Chen, Kuo-Min (Institute of Industrial Engineering and Enterprise Information, Tunghai University, Taiwan), Liu, Ren-Jye (Institute of Industrial Engineering and Enterprise Information, Tunghai University, Taiwan)
Case study, Article English
Networks of innovation and modularity: a dynamic perspective
The aim of this paper is to provide a comprehensive perspective for understanding the dynamics of modularity and the implications of those dynamics for innovation networks. The main contention of this paper is that the dynamics of technology development should reflect the dynamics of a firm ... more
Targets: Business or company managers, Technical staff in companies (engineers, technicians, ..)
Author(s): Chesbrough, Henry (Haas School of Business, University of California, USA), Prencipe, Andrea (University G. d'Annunzio, Italy and University of Sussex, UK)
Article English
Standard-setting processes: evidence from two case studies
In many hi-tech sectors one of the most important dimensions of competition is standardisation. This is particularly true in modular markets (i.e. markets characterised by the existence of modular architectures) and in network markets (i.e. markets where users would like to buy products compatible ... more
Targets: Business or company managers, Technical staff in companies (engineers, technicians, ..)
Author(s): Chiesa, Vittorio (University of Milan Bicocca, Italy ), Manzini, Raffaella (Free UniversityLIUC - Institute, University of Cattaneo, Italy), Toletti, Giovanni (Polytechnic of Milan, Italy)
Case study, Article English
Addressing a standards creation process: a focus on ebXML
Current trends in e-business are creating opportunities for the automation of business processes across business boundaries. However, lack of standards has caused difficulties for industry players in exploiting resources and coordinating activities in the context of e-business. ebXML - an emerging ... more
Targets: Business or company managers, Technical staff in companies (engineers, technicians, ..)
Author(s): Choi, Beomjin (Dept of Management Information Science, College of Business Administration, California State University, USA), Raghu, T.S. (Dept of Management Information Science, College of Business Administration, California State University, USA), Vinze, Ajay (Dept of Information Systems, W.P. Carey School of Business, Arizona State University, USA)
Case study, Article English
Patent scope and innovation in the software industry
Software patents have received a great deal of attention in the academic literature. Unfortunately, most of that attention has been devoted to the problem of whether software is or should be patentable subject matter. With roughly eighty thousand software patents already issued, and the Federal ... more
Targets: Policy makers or regulators, Researchers (from university, business schools, research institutes)
Author(s): Cohen, Julie E. (Georgetown University Law Center, usa), Lemley, Mark A. (University of California at Berkeley School of Law, USA)
Research report English
Too much of a good thing? Quality as an impediment to innovation
The belief that there is a positive link between quality and innovation is widely shared among quality professionals. Yet the experience of Japanese manufacturing firms, who are well known for their high standards of quality performance, casts doubt upon this relationship. In fact, the inability of ... more
Targets: Researchers (from university, business schools, research institutes), Business or company managers, Technical staff in companies (engineers, technicians, ..)
Author(s): Cole, Robert E., Matsumiya, Tsuyoshi
Case study English
Standardisation versus adaptation: Geographical pressures to deviate from franchise formats
There is a tension in business format franchising between, on the one hand, standardisation and uniformity and, on the other hand, geographical variations in market conditions and resource availability. Previous research has demonstrated in the case of independent small firms that local ... more
Targets: Business or company managers, Other
Author(s): Cox, Juliet (Policy and Research Unit NESTA, London, UK), Mason, Colin (Hunter Centre for Entrepreneurship, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, UK)
Case study, Article English
Formal standards-setting for global telecommunications and information services - Towards an institutional regime transformation?
This paper reviews the nature and economic significance of the activities carried on by standards development organizations (SDOs), focusing in particular upon the telecommunications and information technology standards-setting work of the government-created public and quasi-public institutions, ... more
Targets: Policy makers or regulators, Other
Author(s): David, Paul A. (All Souls College, Oxford, UK), Shurmer, Mark (National Economic Research Associates, London, UK)
Research report, Article English
Systemic innovation and the virtues of going virtual: The case of the digital video disc.
According to David Teece, only strong and integrated firms can successfully innovate in a systemic fashion. Looser coalitions consisting of joint ventures, alliances, or virtual partners will not be able to create a systemic innovation, let alone to set standards for it, or to control its further ... more
Targets: Policy makers or regulators, Business or company managers, Technical staff in companies (engineers, technicians, ..)
Author(s): De Laat, Paul B.
Case study, Article English
A process view on managing quality during the creation of technical innovations: Lessons from field research
Quality Management (QM) principles have left their marks on business practice for more than a decade. Amongst the many business functions that have faced the widespread introduction of QM standards and methodologies, the R&D function has been amongst the last to undergo their pervasive influence. ... more
Targets: Business or company managers, Technical staff in companies (engineers, technicians, ..)
Author(s): Debackere, Koenraad (Dept of Applied Economics, Catholic University Leuven, Belgium), Van Looy, Bart (Service Management Centre, De Vlerick School of Managment, Gent University, Belgium), Vliegen, Jan (Mining Union R&D)
Case study, Article English
Influence of the perception of the external environmental pressures on obtaining the ISO 14001 standard in Spanish industrial companies
The aim of this paper is to analyse the influence of external environmental pressures on the decision to obtain certification to the ISO 14001 standard. An assumption of the authors includes recognizing that certification is one step toward environmental excellence and Total Quality Environmental ... more
Targets: Policy makers or regulators, Business or company managers
Author(s): Del Brío, Jesús Angel (Faculty of Economics and Business, Oviedo, Spain), Junquera, Beatriz (Economics and Business, Oviedo, Spain)
Research report, Article English
The diffusion of voluntary international management standards: Responsible Care, ISO 9000, and ISO 14001 in the chemical industry
This article analyzes the factors that explain the international diffusion of voluntary international management standards. We argue that international management standards should not be analyzed in isolation but in conjunction with other standards and their institutional environment. We present ... more
Targets: Policy makers or regulators, Other
Author(s): Delmas, Magali (Donald Bren School of Environmental Science & Management, University of California, USA), Montiel, Ivan (University of Texas, USA)
Case study, Article English
Contract evolution and institutional innovation: Marketing Pacific-grown apples from 1890 to 1930
Between 1890 and 1930, the development of refrigerated rail transportation enabled a national U.S. apple industry to emerge. Apples were shipped over long distances, and sold in the terminal market on consignment or FOB, or in the auction market. There were frequent disputes over quality, caused by ... more
Targets: Researchers (from university, business schools, research institutes)
Author(s): Dimitri, Carolyn (Economic Research Service, US Dept of Agriculture)
Article English
Networking as a means to strategy change: The case of open innovation in mobile telephony
The purpose of this article is to investigate how innovation networks can be used to deal with a changing technological environment. This study combines different concepts related to research and development (R&D) collaboration strategies of large firms and applies these concepts to R&D alliance ... more
Targets: Policy makers or regulators, Business or company managers
Author(s): Dittrich, K (Erasmus University Rotterdam, Netherlands), Duysters, G. (Eindhoven University of Technology, Netherlands)
Article English
How much should society fuel the greed of innovators? On the relations between appropriability, opportunities and rates of innovation
The paper attempts a critical assessment of both the theory and the empirical evidence on the role of appropriability and in particular of Intellectual Property Rights (IPRs) as incentives for technological innovation. We start with a critical discussion of the standard justification of the ... more
Targets: Policy makers or regulators, Business or company managers
Author(s): Dosi, G. (Superior School Sant'Anna, Pisa, Italy), Marengo, L. (Superior School Sant'Anna, Pisa, Italy), Pasquali, C. (University of Teramo, Italy)
Case study, Article English
Reimagining the differentiation and integration of work for sustained product innovation
This study describes the image of organizing that underlies a complex organization's ability to incorporate streams of innovation with continuing operations. I argue that a mechanistic organization archetype prevents people from seeing in their minds' eyes - from imagining - how to do the work of ... more
Targets: Business or company managers
Author(s): Dougherty, Deborah (Faculty of Management, Dept of Organization Management, Rutgers University, Newark, USA)
Case study, Article English
Innovation, competition, standards and intellectual property: Policy perspectives from economics and law
The paper identifies the sources of regulatory complexity that lie behind the management of
innovation, intellectual property, competition law and technical standard setting processes. It
then introduces the remaining papers in the Special Issue. These papers focus on aspects ... more
Targets: Policy makers or regulators, Researchers (from university, business schools, research institutes)
Author(s): Drahos, Peter (RegNet, Research School of Social Sciences, Australian National University), Maher, Imelda (Law Dept, London School of Economica and Political Science, UK)
Article English
Patent pools and standard setting in diagnostic genetics
Properly structured and implemented, diagnostic patent pools could integrate complementary technologies, reduce transaction costs and spur innovation.
Genetic diseases often involve multiple genes and/or gene fragments that are patented, along with diagnostic methods and microprocessing ... more
Targets: Policy makers or regulators, Business or company managers, Technical staff in companies (engineers, technicians, ..)
Author(s): Ebersole, Ted J. (Sterne Kessler Goldstein & Fox PLLC, Washington DC, USA), Goldstein, Jorge A. (Sterne Kessler Goldstein & Fox PLLC, Washington DC, USA), Guthrie, Marvin C. (Sterne Kessler Goldstein & Fox PLLC, Washington DC, USA)
Article English
IPR paralysis in standardization: Is regulatory symmetry desirable?
Fear of legal claims on intellectual property rights (IPRs) sometimes paralyzes standards processes. IPR procedures of standards bodies address such problems. However, by default unresolved problems are addressed by the legal regime. The process of JavaTM standardization, which is a red thread in ... more
Targets: Policy makers or regulators, Business or company managers, Technical staff in companies (engineers, technicians, ..)
Author(s): Egyedi, T.M. (Delft University of Technology, Netherlands)
Article English
A standard's integrity: Can it be safeguarded?
When a compatibility standard is adapted, extended, or selectively implemented, its purpose is likely to be undermined. Its value declines sharply because interoperability between standard-compliant implementations becomes uncertain. The integrity of the standard is at stake. This article discusses ... more
Targets: Technical staff in companies (engineers, technicians, ..), Other
Author(s): Egyedi, Tineke M. (Delft University of Technology, Netherlands), Hudson, John (Bath University, UK)
Case study, Article English
Update of the European standards for inactive surgical implants in the area of heart valve prostheses
Objective: The approval of a heart valve for the European market takes place in accordance with European and international standards. A new
version of the EN Standards was published in June 2006, which responded to different technical innovations in the area of heart valve ... more
Targets: Other
Author(s): Däbritz, Sabine (Dept of Cardiac Surgery, University hospital Grosshadern, Munich, Germany), Eichinger, Walter (German Heart Center Munich, Germany)
Article English
Competing technologies and market dominance: standard battles in the Local Area Networking industry
The rise of Fast Ethernet as the dominant standard for high-speed connection in the Local Area Networking industry is chosen to study the interaction between increasing returns to adoption and technical change in innovation diffusion. Contrary to most of the empirical papers on diffusion with ... more
Targets: Policy makers or regulators, Business or company managers, Technical staff in companies (engineers, technicians, ..)
Author(s): Fontana, Roberto (Dept of Economics, Universit of Pavia, Italy)
Case study, Article English
Standards, dominant designs and preferential acquisition of complementary assets through slight information advantages
This paper discusses how firms can use slight information advantages to obtain preferential access to complementary assets and create multi-level dominant designs. It does this by using an analysis of several cellular phone industries and the literature on standards and dominant designs. In the ... more
Targets: Policy makers or regulators, Business or company managers
Author(s): Funk, Jeffrey L. (Research Institute for Economics and Business Administration, Kobe University, Japan)
Research report, Article English
Market- and committee-based mechanisms in the creation and diffusion of global industry standards: the case of mobile communication
The existing literature on industrial standards almost exclusively focuses on pure market competition; this paper shows how and why both governments and firms have had a strong effect on the creation of global standards in the mobile communication industry through a hybrid system of committees and ... more
Targets: Policy makers or regulators, Business or company managers, Technical staff in companies (engineers, technicians, ..)
Author(s): Funk, Jeffrey L. (Graduate School of Business, Kobe University, Japan), Methe, David T. (Faculty of Comparative Culture, Sophia University, Japan)
Research report, Article English
Innovation and competition in standard-based industries: A historical analysis of the US home video game market
This paper examines the competitive dynamics in a standard-based industry through a historical observation of the U.S. home video game industry. The paper focuses on the theoretical issues of switching costs, installed base, and complementary goods as critical factors of dominant designs and firm ... more
Targets: Business or company managers, Technical staff in companies (engineers, technicians, ..)
Author(s): Gallagher, Scott (College of Business, James Madison University, Harrisonburg, VA, USA), Park, Seung Ho (Faculty of Management, Rutgers University, NJ, USA)
Research report, Article English
Compatibility, standardization, and network effects: Some policy implications
Given the dramatic growth of the Internet and information-technology industries in general, and the importance of interconnection in these networks, the economics of compatibility and standardization has become mainstream economics. In this paper, I examine several key policy aspects of standard ... more
Targets: Policy makers or regulators, Business or company managers, Technical staff in companies (engineers, technicians, ..)
Author(s): Gandal, Neil (Tel Aviv University, Israel)
Research report, Article English
Counter-networks in standardization: a perspective of developing countries
Present information systems studies focus on technology from developed countries. Little is known about the development and implementation of indigenous technology in the developing world. This paper investigates China's experience of developing and deploying wireless local-area network (WLAN) ... more
Targets: Policy makers or regulators, Business or company managers, Technical staff in companies (engineers, technicians, ..)
Author(s): Gao, Ping (Institute for Development Policy and Management, University of Manchester, UK)
Case study, Article English
Knowledge creation, use and innovation: The role of urban and regional innovation strategies and policies
The paper discusses the creation, use and innovation of knowledge by focussing on Canadian urban and regional innovation strategies and policies. The concept of "place" together with other standard concepts of regional innovation research is applied to the Canadian province British Columbia and, in ... more
Targets: Policy makers or regulators
Author(s): Goldberg, Michael A. (Universitas 21 Global, Singapore)
Research report, Article English
Insights from senior executives about innovation in international markets
Innovation and the internationalization of business are two of the most important factors determining business success today. However, very few empirical studies have examined these factors together. This study uses a discovery-oriented approach to examine innovation in the international ... more
Targets: Business or company managers
Author(s): Golder, Peter N. (Stern School of Business, New York University, USA)
Case study, Article English
The evolution of market structure in semiconductors: the role of product standards
This paper looks at the role of product standards in determining the evolution of market structure in semiconductors. Theory suggests that product standards, along with learning-by-doing effects, lead to market concentration and persistence of leadership in product innovation. Empirical evidence ... more
Targets: Business or company managers
Author(s): Gruber, Harald (Projects Directorate, European Investment Bank, Luxembourg)
Research report, Article English
The adoption of ISO 9000 standards within the Egyptian context: A diffusion of innovation approach
This study investigates the key determinants of the adoption of innovation (ISO 9000 standards). These determinants are classified into three groups of factors: first, the perceived characteristics of innovation, comprising perceived relative advantage, perceived complexity, perceived ... more
Targets: Policy makers or regulators, Business or company managers
Author(s): Hashem, Gharib (The Birmingham Business School, University of Birmingham, UK), Tann, Jennifer (The Birmingham Business School, University of Birmingham, UK)
Case study, Article English
Standardization, innovation and deployment of electronic referral software in Norway.
The introduction of electronic referrals in Norway started in 1996, when the first standard for an electronic referral was developed. Subsequent implementations of electronic health record (EHR) systems have been tested by a national testing and approval service. Almost all the Norwegian EHR ... more
Targets: Policy makers or regulators, Other
Author(s): Heimly, V. (Dept of Computer and Information Science, Norwegian University of Science and Technology)
Article English
Making connections: global production networks, standards, and embeddedness in the mobile-telecommunications industry
The authors investigate the contemporary restructuring of the mobile-telecommunications industry with the use of a global production networks (GPNs) perspective. After a brief conceptual discussion of GPN, standard setting and embeddedness, their analysis proceeds in four further stages. First, ... more
Targets: Policy makers or regulators, Technical staff in companies (engineers, technicians, ..), Other
Author(s): Coe, N.M., Hess, M.
Case study, Article English
The Changing Nature of Innovation
Innovation goes beyond mere invention to mean the creative application of technologies, processes or ideas to some useful purpose. Innovation is becoming a highly valued commodity, viewed as key to competitiveness and economic growth. As a result, pressure is increasing to identify areas that ... more
Targets: Policy makers or regulators, Technical staff in companies (engineers, technicians, ..)
Author(s): Horn, Paul M.
Research report, Article English
A model of Internet standards adoption: the case of IPv6
The Internet presents a unique environment in which to study adoption. This is because of its composition of autonomous entities that are otherwise strongly interrelated. Our model of Internet standards adoption (ISA) combines diffusion of innovation and economics of adoption literature to present ... more
Targets: Policy makers or regulators, Technical staff in companies (engineers, technicians, ..)
Author(s): Hovav, Anat (Dept of Management Information Systems, Fox School of Business and Management, Temple University, Philadelphia, USA), Patnayakuni, Ravi (Accounting and Information Systems, University of Alabama, USA), Schuff, David (Dept of Management Information Systems, Fox School of Business and Management, Temple University, Philadelphia, USA)
Case study, Article English
Global standards in action: Insights from anti-money laundering regulation
As organizations have come under the increasing influence of global rules of all sorts, organization scholars have started studying the dynamics of global regulation. The purpose of this article is to identify and evaluate the contribution to this interdisciplinary field by the "Stockholm Centre ... more
Targets: Policy makers or regulators
Author(s): Hülsse, Rainer (Geschwister-School Institute, Ludwig-Maximilians University, Munich, Germany), Kerwer, Dieter (Technical University Munich, Germany)
Article English
Interface standards and creating innovation markets - implications on SMEs in a technology programme
Creating markets for innovations developed and fixed interface standards are both exceptional features for technology programmes and especially interesting from the point of view of innovating SMEs. This article examines the influence of these features of a technology programme in the field of ... more
Targets: Business or company managers
Author(s): Hyvättinen, Heli (Finnish Environment Institute)
Article English
Innovation in concrete research - review and perspective
The heritage of concrete making as a craft has made testing of laboratory specimens the basic principle for research and standard control systems; this has corresponded well with the conditions for field concrete technology and structural performance throughout the 19th and the first half of the ... more
Targets: Technical staff in companies (engineers, technicians, ..)
Author(s): Idorn, Gunnar M. (International Consultant, Naerum, Denmark)
Article English
Shaping user-side innovation through standardisation - The example of ICT
This paper looks at the relations that exist between standardisation and user-side innovation in ICT. Some necessary background information are followed by a discussion of how standards and user-side innovations are shaped. A mutual influence between standardisation and innovation can be ... more
Targets: Technical staff in companies (engineers, technicians, ..), Other
Author(s): Jakobs, Kari (Aachen University, Germany)
Article English
Accounting and the construction of the standard body.
Early twenty first century Western society is commonly portrayed as a consumer society. Yet accounting research has to date neglected to explore the possible role of accounting technique in the intricate linkages between consumption, body size and individualism. This paper seeks to examine an ... more
Targets: Policy makers or regulators, Business or company managers
Author(s): Jeacle, Ingrid (Accounting Group, School of Management, The University of Edinburgh, UK)
Article English
Product standards, innovation and regulation
This paper examines the public policy issues associated with product standardization. It addresses three main questions:
1. Do laissez faire markets provide an appropriate level of compatibility and standardization?
2. Does standardization result in anti-competitive behaviour?
3. ... more
Targets: Policy makers or regulators
Author(s): Jordan, Judith (Bristol Business School, University of West England, UK)
Article English
Standardization and innovation in corporate contracting (or ''the economics of boilerplate''
This Article presents a theoretical, institutional, and empirical analysis of how increasing returns -- specifically, learning externalities and network externalities -- influence standardization, customization, and innovation in corporate contracts. In the theoretical section, we analyze how ... more
Targets: Researchers (from university, business schools, research institutes), Other
Author(s): Kahan, Marcel (European Corporate Governance Institute, New York University School of Law, USA), Klausner, Michael (Stanford Law School, USA)
Article English
An innovative approach to make ISO 9000 standards more effective
The development of quality systems has evolved from many principles and techniques. These principles and techniques include kanban , hashin-kanri , kaizen , quality control circles, quality function deployment, just in time, Deming's 14 points, etc. In reality, these principles and techniques have ... more
Targets: Business or company managers, Other
Author(s): Kanji, G.K. (Management Sciences Research Centre, Sheffield Hallam University, UK)
Research report, Article English
Standardization in the midst of innovation: structural implications of the Internet for SMEs
The spread of Internet technologies has heralded the emergence of a "new economy" with the development of the quintessential new economy type of business, the Internet E-commerce firm. Identification of structural changes emerging from the interaction between business and technology in a society ... more
Targets: Business or company managers
Author(s): Katz, J.A. (Department of Management, John Cook School of Business, Saint Louis University, USA), Safranski, S. (Department of Management, John Cook School of Business, Saint Louis University, USA)
Article English
Diagnosing risk in radical innovation projects
Radical innovation projects are inherently risky. A number of in-depth case studies have been carried out to identify the kinds of risk that are characteristic of this type of new product development project. Two kinds of risk were identified. The first - unambiguous risk - was high for three basic ... more
Targets: Business or company managers, Technical staff in companies (engineers, technicians, ..)
Author(s): Halman, Johannes I. M. (Faculty of Engineering, University of Twente, Netherlands), Keizer, Jimme A. (Dept of Technology Management, Eindhoven University of Technology and Zuyd University, Netherlands)
Case study, Article English
Standardization activities of Bluetooth
Recently, Bluetooth has been attracting widespread attention as a vicinity wireless specification for mobile terminals. Capable of dramatically improving ease of operations over the conventional wired connections, and allowing innovative use by combining functions of different kinds of appliances, ... more
Targets: Business or company managers, Technical staff in companies (engineers, technicians, ..)
Author(s): Kinoshita, S. (Docomo Europe S.A.), Ono, H. (Ntt Corp.)
Article English
SEAC and the start of image processing at the National Bureau of Standards
The National Bureau of Standards Electronic Automatic Computer, SEAC, completed in 1950, was the first electronic computer with an internally stored program in the U.S. government. This paper describes how scanning and computer processing of images began at the National Bureau of Standards in 1956 ... more
Targets: Other
Author(s): Kirsch, R.A. (National Institute of Standards and Technology, USA)
Article English
Innovation diffusion: Proposal of an organizing theory on which to base research into school library development
Current research into national and international school library development tends to be fragmented and descriptive. Conceptualizing the spread of school librarianship as the diffusion of an innovation and encouraging inquiry framed by diffusion theory may result in research that involves ... more
Targets: Researchers (from university, business schools, research institutes), Other
Author(s): Knuth, Rebecca (School of Library & Information Studies, University of Hawaii, USA)
Article English
Engineering evaluation about the role of innovation in a globalized economy
New trends in production processes result in the important role of innovation in a globalized economy. In the different market segments, strong competition does not allow even the smallest loss of the traditional processes, so the whole value-add process has to be managed by a complex, globalized, ... more
Targets: Policy makers or regulators, Business or company managers
Author(s): Koczor, Zoltán (Fashion, Product and Technology Institution, Budapest Technical University), Takács, Áron (Fashion, Product and Technology Institution, Budapest Technical University)
Article English
Uniform National Discharge Standards - Overview and implications for future naval engineering
In the Fiscal Year 1996 National Defense Authorization Act, Congress amended the Clean Water Act to provide the Department of Defense and the Environmental Protection Agency authority to jointly establish standards for incidental discharges from Armed Forces' vessels. The uniform national standards ... more
Targets: Policy makers or regulators, Technical staff in companies (engineers, technicians, ..), Other
Author(s): Erne, David L., Gordon, Smith , Kim, Don , Kopack, David
Article English
Standardized payment procedures as key enabling factor for mobile commerce
Companies are not going to invest into the development of innovative applications or services unless these can be charged for appropriately. Thus, the existence of standardized and widely accepted mobile payment procedures is crucial for successful business-to-customer mobile commerce. In this ... more
Targets: Policy makers or regulators, Business or company managers, Technical staff in companies (engineers, technicians, ..)
Author(s): Kreyer, Nina (Business Information Systems, University of Augsburg, Germany), Pousttchi, Key (Business Information Systems, University of Augsburg, Germany), Turowski, Klaus (Business Information Systems, University of Augsburg, Germany)
Case study, Article English
Standards migration and peripheral competition
The impact of competition from peripheral firms on the standards migration efforts by integrated systems firms with de facto standards control is investigated. When systems' firms try to migrate their customers to a new standard, they can lose some control over their installed base because they are ... more
Targets: Business or company managers, Technical staff in companies (engineers, technicians, ..), Other
Author(s): Krickx, Guido A.
Article English
Integrating environment for innovation - Experiences from product development in paper and packaging
Environmental innovations have been emphasized for effectively solving environmental problems. In the innovation literature, organizational factors have been listed among the determinants of innovations, and firm-level research and development (R&D) has been perceived crucial. This indicates that ... more
Targets: Policy makers or regulators, Business or company managers, Technical staff in companies (engineers, technicians, ..)
Author(s): Kivimaa, Paula (Finnish Environment Institute (SYKE) and Helsinki School of Economics)
Case study, Article English
The Hexopater (TM), from birth to market: innovative product development challenges
Product innovation in a compressed time frame puts enormous pressure on a firm to effectively and efficiently manage limited budget, time and allocation of material and human resources. The study reported relates to an innovative new product development and the associated challenges faced by an ... more
Targets: Business or company managers, Technical staff in companies (engineers, technicians, ..)
Author(s): Addie, Helen L.S. (University of St. Thomas, USA), Kumar, Sameer (University of St. Thomas, USA)
Case study, Article English
Standardization and the stability of collusion
We characterize the interplay between firms' decision in terms of product standardization and the nature of their ensuing market behaviour. We prove the existence of a nonmonotone relationship between firms' decision at the product stage and their intertemporal preferences.
Targets: Business or company managers
Author(s): Lambertini, Luca (Dept of Economics, University of Bologna, Italy), Poddar, Sougata (Catholic University of Louvain, Belgium), Sasaki, Dan (Economics Dept, University of Melbourne, Australia)
Article English
Challenges ahead e-innovation
This article systematically examines the recent efforts made by industry and academia in promoting E-innovation. It finds that industrial initiatives have been hindered by two limitations. One is a lack of an agreeable framework to accommodate the diversity of different usages. The other is a trend ... more
Targets: Policy makers or regulators, Researchers (from university, business schools, research institutes)
Author(s): Du, Howard (University of New Brunswick Saint John, Canada), Lan, Ping (University of New Brunswick Saint John, Canada)
Article English
Competing through cooperation: The organization of standard setting in wireless telecommunications
This study examines cooperative standard setting in wireless telecommunications. Focusing on the competition among firms to influence formal standardization, the roles of standard-setting committees, private alliances, and industry consortia are highlighted. The empirical context is Third ... more
Targets: Policy makers or regulators, Technical staff in companies (engineers, technicians, ..)
Author(s): Leiponen, Aija Elina (Applied Economics and Management, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, USA)
Case study, Article English
A good life environment for all through conceptual, technological and social innovations
In conventional environmental protection the parallel development of advanced technical solutions alongside ever more stringent environmental standards increasingly conflicts with the moral and practical imperatives to ensure sustainability and drastically improve the life conditions of the world's ... more
Targets: Policy makers or regulators, Technical staff in companies (engineers, technicians, ..)
Author(s): Lettinga G. (Dept of Environmental Technology, Wageningen University, Netherlands)
Article English
Flexibility and standardization: Test of a contingency model of product design-manufacturing integration
This article proposes and tests a contingency model of system integration of product design and manufacturing among producers of goods involving tooling development. The model predicts which combinations of organizational and technical practices will be most effective under conditions of high and ... more
Targets: Business or company managers, Technical staff in companies (engineers, technicians, ..)
Author(s): Collins, Paul D. (University of Washington, Bothel, USA), Hull, Frank M. (School of Graduate Business Administration, Fordham University, New York, USA), Liker, Jeffrey K. (Industrial and Operations Engineering Faculty, University of Michigan, USA)
Article, Other English
Standardization and discretion: Does the environmental standard ISO 14001 lead to performance benefits?
This study sought to determine if the environmental management standard ISO 14001 helps organizations reduce the negative impact their business activities may have on the environment, and as a result, also improves their business performance. Forty organizations participated in the study and ... more
Targets: Policy makers or regulators, Business or company managers
Author(s): Link, S. (Faculty of Industrial Engineering and Management, Technion - Israel Institute of Technology), Naveh, E.
Case study, Article English
Human factors and the innovation process
The goal of this paper is to describe two typologies of human factors that help explain the technical innovation process, and to illustrate their predictive power. The first typology defines five categories of inventors based on inventors' views of success and their corresponding attitudes toward ... more
Targets: Business or company managers, Technical staff in companies (engineers, technicians, ..)
Author(s): Brown, Marilyn A. (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Tennessee, USA), Livesay, Howard (Texas A&M University, USA), Lux, David S. (Bryant College, Rhode Island, USA)
Case study, Article English
Policy innovations of the US intermodal surface transportation efficiency act and clear air act amendments
This paper considers how the CAAA and ISTEA combine to provide an innovative national policy approach of interest to countries seeking to encourage sustainable development in urban centers. The CAAA mandates measurable and enforceable air quality targets. Nation-wide standards are set for ... more
Targets: Policy makers or regulators
Author(s): Lyons, William M. (Volpe National Transportation Systems Center Research and Special Programs Admin, US Dept of Transportation, Cambridge, MA, USA)
Policy document or policy guideline, Article English
Impact of wireless telecommunications standards and regulation on the evolution of wireless technologies and services over Internet protocol
Beginning with the historical role and importance of multi-physical standards in wireless telecommunications for the future in the US, Japan and Europe, this paper provides a cohesive vision of how wireless communication, voice over Internet protocol (VoIP) is likely to develop. Also covered in ... more
Targets: Policy makers or regulators, Technical staff in companies (engineers, technicians, ..)
Author(s): Amar, A.D. (The Stillman School, Seton Hall University, NJ, USA), Gibson, Allen (The Stillman School, Seton Hall University, NJ, USA), Maeda, Tadahiko (Dept of Computer Science, Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Ritsumeikan University, Shiga, Japan)
Article English
Data standards: At the intersection of sites, clinical research networks, and standards development initiatives
Interactions between the health care and clinical research communities are currently inefficient. The present environment forces unnecessary redundancy, from the capture of patient data in the clinician-patient encounter to multiple uses of thai data. Clinical research operations must become more ... more
Targets: Researchers (from university, business schools, research institutes), Other
Author(s): Booher, Kimberly (Duke Clinical Research Institute, Durham, North Carolina, USA), Dukes Hamilton, Carol (Duke Clinical Research Institute, Durham, North Carolina, USA), Fox, Kathleen (Duke Clinical Research Institute, Durham, North Carolina, USA), Hammond, William E. (Duke School of Medecine, Durham, North Carolina, USA), Harrington, Robert A. (Duke Clinical Research Institute, Durham, North Carolina, USA), McCourt, Brian (Duke Clinical Research Institute, Durham, North Carolina, USA), Nahm, Meredith (Duke Clinical Research Institute, Durham, North Carolina, USA), Walden, Anita (Duke Clinical Research Institute, Durham, North Carolina, USA)
Article English
Life cycle-based service design for innovative business models
A successful service business requires a new life cycle-based approach with a comprehensive view of the real customer's demands. This includes the establishment of innovative business models. These business models cover the fields of planning, finance, ramp up, revamping, take back as well as a ... more
Targets: Researchers (from university, business schools, research institutes), Business or company managers
Author(s): Massberg, W. (Dortmund, Germany), Meier, H. (Dept of Mechanical Engineering, Ruhr-University Bochum, Germany)
Research report, Article English
Rewarding quality and innovation: Awards, charters, and international standards as catalysts for change
In the competitive, downsized, and mission-driven global service economy of the early 21st century, all organizations search for models to encourage innovation, measure performance, and raise customer service quality standards. Competition for an award can be a cost effective strategy to identify ... more
Targets: Business or company managers, Technical staff in companies (engineers, technicians, ..)
Author(s): Milakovich, Michael E. (School of Business Administration, University of Miami, Florida, USA)
Case study, Other English
Environmental performance standards and the adoption of technology
This paper examines the argument that environmental performance standards offer a relative disincentive for the adoption of cleaner technologies, and it shows that this relative disincentive exists when regulators cannot credibly commit to a stringent environmental standard. The relative ... more
Targets: Policy makers or regulators, Business or company managers, Technical staff in companies (engineers, technicians, ..)
Author(s): Mohr, Robert D. (Whittemore School of Business and Economics, University of New Hampshire, USA)
Article English
Why organizations adopt information system process innovations: a longitudinal study using Diffusion of Innovation theory
This paper identifies factors that affected over 200 information system (IS) process innovation adoption decisions in three organizational environments over a period that spanned four decades. The analysis is based on Rogers's (1995) theory of Diffusion of Innovations (DOI). The results show that ... more
Targets: Other
Author(s): Lyytinen, Kalle (Dept of Information Systems, The Weatherhead School of Management, Case Western Reserve University, OH, USA), Mustonen-Ollila, Erja (Dept of Information Technology, Lappeenranta University of Technology, Finland)
Article English
Conceptual issues in the study of innovation adoption behavior
This paper focuses upon the relationships among the major behavioral concepts associated with different stages in the consumer innovation decision process. Innovation acceptance, adoption, resistance, rejection, postponement, and their conceptual equivalents tend to lack standardized conceptual and ... more
Targets: Business or company managers, Technical staff in companies (engineers, technicians, ..)
Author(s): Bloem, Jaak, G. (Tilburg University, Netherlands), Nabih, Mohammed, I. (Tilburg University, Netherlands), Poiesz, Theo B.C. (Tilburg University, Netherlands)
Research report English
Interrelationships among the elements of national innovation systems: A statistical evaluation
An obstacle often faced by countries in attempting to improve the standard of living of their people and the productivity of their economic base is a low level of technological development. At the national level, such a problem may be conceptualized in the form of a National Innovative System ... more
Targets: Policy makers or regulators, Business or company managers
Author(s): Arcelus, F.J. (Faculty of Administration, University of New Brunswick, Canada), Nasierowski, W. (Faculty of Administration, University of New Brunswick, Canada)
Case study, Article English
Achieving competitive advantage through implementing a replicable management standard: Installing and using ISO 9000
This paper investigates the effects of implementing the international standard ISO 9000 on measures of business and operating performance. Based on the literature and a case study we identified two stages in implementing ISO 9000:
1. Installation, which has two dimensions: (a) external ... more
Targets: Business or company managers, Technical staff in companies (engineers, technicians, ..)
Author(s): Marcus, Alfred (Carlson School of Management, University of Minnesota, USA), Naveh, Eitan (Faculty of Industrial Engineering and Management, Technion - Israel Institute of Technology)
Case study, Article English
Quantitative analysis of results produced by technological innovations
What difference is produced by a specific innovation? The answer to this question is the differential concept, Differential Year(n) = RnRn-1, which is the effect on a business's results at the end of an accounting period produced by the value change of a variable. The differential is therefore an ... more
Targets: Business or company managers
Author(s): Ambrosio Orizaola, Enrique, Manuel (Dept of Business Administration, University of Cantabria, Santander, Spain)
Case study, Article English
Adoption of standards under uncertainty
The presence of noise in compliance times may have a critical impact on the selection of new technological standards. A technically superior standard is not necessarily viable because an arbitrarily small amount of noise may render coordination on that standard impossible. We introduce the concept ... more
Targets: Business or company managers, Technical staff in companies (engineers, technicians, ..)
Author(s): Ostrovsky, Michael (Graduate School of Business, Stanford University, USA), Schwarz, Michael (University of California, Berkeley, USA)
Research report, Article English
Codes of conduct and standard setting in the forest sector - Constructing markets for democracy?
In an age of globalization, there is a growing perception that state regulatory instruments may be an inadequate means of regulating firm conduct. Increasingly, scholars are evaluating how corporate codes of conduct may operate as regulatory mechanisms. This article examines competing codes of ... more
Targets: Policy makers or regulators, Business or company managers
Author(s): Overdevest, Christine (University of Florida, USA)
Case study, Article English
Does innovativeness matter for international competitiveness in developing countries? The case of Turkish manufacturing industries
We examine the determinants of export performance of firms in the Turkish manufacturing industry. Prominent differences show up between innovator and non-innovator firms in terms of the impacts of such variables as firm size, advertisement intensities, ownership structures, and composition of ... more
Targets: Policy makers or regulators, Business or company managers, Technical staff in companies (engineers, technicians, ..)
Author(s): Taymaz, Erol (Dept of Economics, Middle East Technical University, Ankara, Turkey), Özçelik, Emre (Dept of Economics, Middle East Technical University, Ankara, Turkey)
Case study, Article English
Accounting, innovation, and incentives
This paper studies two scenarios of incentive issues related to innovation: the first is related to organizational innovation and the second is related to technological innovation. In the first scenario, we show that diversification across substitutive projects can actually make incompetent ... more
Targets: Policy makers or regulators, Business or company managers
Author(s): Pacharn, Parunchana (Dept of Accounting and Law, State University of New York, USA), Zhang, Li (The Anderson School of Management, University of California, USA)
Case study, Article English
Reinventing regulation within the corporation - Compliance-oriented regulatory innovation
Compliance-oriented regulation should be understood as a holistic approach to regulatory design, implementation, monitoring, and enforcement in which the guiding principle is the achievement of regulatory outcomes. Compliance-oriented regulation is therefore distinctively concerned with the effects ... more
Targets: Policy makers or regulators, Business or company managers, Technical staff in companies (engineers, technicians, ..)
Author(s): Parker, Christine (University of New South Wales, Australia)
Article English
Pollution regulation and the efficiency gains from technological innovation
Previous studies suggest a preference for emissions taxes over (non-auctioned) emissions permits and performance standards based on their potential for promoting technological innovation. We present simulation results that cast some doubt on the empirical importance of this assertion: the welfare ... more
Targets: Policy makers or regulators
Author(s): Parry, Ian W.H. (Resources for the Future, Washington DC, USA)
Research report, Case study, Article English
What's happening with machine safety standards and networks?
Purpose - Recently there has been considerable technological change in the way in which safety-related control may be engineered. A series of standards based upon IEC 61508 are under development. This paper discusses these changes and highlights their relevancy to machine ... more
Targets: Policy makers or regulators, Business or company managers, Technical staff in companies (engineers, technicians, ..)
Author(s): Piggin, Richard (Rockwell Automation, Milton Keynes, UK)
Research report, Article English
Innovation in services - How different from manufacturing?
Using standardised firm data a comparative analysis of the determinants of product and process innovation in manufacturing and services is performed. Results show that in services there are significant differences in innovation behaviour, in terms of intramural and extramural R&D. It is also ... more
Targets: Policy makers or regulators, Business or company managers, Other
Author(s): Carvalho, Luísa (CICE-ESCE-IPS, Sétubal; Dept of Economics and Management, Polytechnic Institute of Sétubal, Portugal), Pires, Cesaltina Pacheco (CEFAGE-UE, Évora ; Dept of Management, University of Évora, Portugal), Sarkar, Soumodip (CEFAGE-UE, Évora; Dept of Management, University of Évora, Portugal)
Case study, Article English
Requisitely holistic ISO 9000 audit leads to continuous innovation/improvement
Research has shown that quality assurance with the formal fulfillment of ISO 9001 standard requirements tends not to help companies to achieve greater competitiveness and business success. Conformity of the quality system with the standard requirements confirms that the company has achieved a ... more
Targets: Business or company managers
Author(s): Mulej, Matjaz (University of Maribor, Slovenia), Pivka, Marjan (University of Maribor, Slovenia)
Research report, Article English
Development of a commercial system to apply the Meat Standards Australia grading model to optimise the return on eating quality in a beef supply chain
A major trial was conducted to develop, test and demonstrate the application of Meat Standards Australia (MSA) research findings in a beef retailing environment. A new concept retail store was established whereby a mix of raw beef products and pre-cooked meals were merchandised under an eating ... more
Targets: Policy makers or regulators, Business or company managers, Other
Author(s): Doljanin, A. (Polkinghornes Pty Ltd, Vic., Australia), Gee, A. (Cosing, NSW, Australia), Innes, J. (Polkinghornes Pty Ltd, Vic., Australia), Philipott, J. (Marrinya Agricultural Enterprises, Vic. Australia), Polkinghorne, R, (Marrinya Agricultural Enterprises, Vic. Australia)
Article English
International innovation and diffusion of air pollution control technologies: the effects of NOx and SO2 regulation in the US, Japan, and Germany
Using patent data from the United States, Japan, and Germany, this paper examines both innovation and diffusion of air pollution control equipment. Whereas the United States was an early adopter of stringent sulfur dioxide (SO2) standards, both Japan and Germany introduced stringent nitrogen ... more
Targets: Policy makers or regulators, Technical staff in companies (engineers, technicians, ..)
Author(s): Popp, David (Dept of Public Administration, Center for Environmental Policy Administration, The Maxwell School, Syracuse University, USA and National Bureau of Economic Research, MA, USA)
Research report, Article English
Discussion Forum: From innovation to implementation
Requirements for the safety and nutritional adequacy of infant formula are set by legislation and aim for the best possible substitute for human milk with regard to growth, development and biological effects. This is, however, a continuous process and has to be supported by science-driven ... more
Targets: Policy makers or regulators, Technical staff in companies (engineers, technicians, ..), Other
Author(s): Antoine, Jean Michel (Danone Vitapole, Palaiseau, France), Hernell, O. (University Ume, Sweden), Przyrembel, Hildegard (Federal Institute for Risk Assessment, Berlin, Germany), Secretin, M.C. (Nestlé, France), Turck, D. (University Lille, France), Underwood, E. (Wyeth, UK)
Article English
The strategic use of innovation to influence regulatory standards
This paper investigates the welfare consequences of strategic behavior by firms to affect the amount of environmental regulation they face. Environmental regulation often attempts to force an industry to develop cleaner technology, but the regulator may have no means to commit to a specific ... more
Targets: Policy makers or regulators, Business or company managers
Author(s): Puller, Steven L. (Dept of Economics Texas A&M University, USA)
Research report, Case study, Article English
Standardisation of network technologies: Market processes or the result of inter-firm co-operation?
As recent studies on the evolution of a technology indicate, the role of a standard, or dominant design, is highly significant in a number of contemporary industries such as computer, telecommunications and consumer electronics. Following Katz's and Shapiro's pioneering works (1985), our paper ... more
Targets: Researchers (from university, business schools, research institutes), Business or company managers
Author(s): Abdessemed, Tamym (Audencia-Nantes School of Management, Nantes, France), Bonardi, Jean-Philippe (University of Western Ontario, Canada), Durand, Rudolphe (EMLYON Business School, Lyon, France), Quélin, Bertrand (HEC, Paris, France)
Research report, Case study, Article English
Risk management - Time for innovative approaches
Risk management practices under the current environmental regulations is a long, complex process that considers scientific, technologic, and management factors to develop various regulatory standards and pollution control measures. Using the mandatory enforcement approach, sometimes referred to as ... more
Targets: Policy makers or regulators, Business or company managers
Author(s): Rao, Venkateswara R. (Science Applications International Corporation, VA, USA)
Article English
History and impact of computer standards
A computer trade publication recently devoted a column in one of its issues to complaints about the uselessness of standards developing organizations and, by extension, of standards. Despite those complaints, the author of the column probably saved a great deal of time and effort by composing it on ... more
Targets: Policy makers or regulators, Technical staff in companies (engineers, technicians, ..)
Author(s): Cargill, C. (Sun Microsystems, MA, USA), Robinson, G.S. (Sun Microsystems, MA, USA)
Article English
The role of resource access, market considerations, and the nature of innovation in pursuit of standards in the new product development process
Standards influence new product development (NPD) in high-technology markets. However, existing work on standards has focused exclusively on one aspect of standards - compatibility standards. This article has the following goals. First, we delineate the concept of customer interface standards as ... more
Targets: Business or company managers
Author(s): Riley, Debra¿, Sahay, Arvind (London Business School, UK)
Research report, Article English
Polluting emissions standards and clean technology trajectories under competitive selection and supply chain pressure
Based on an evolutionary model of industrial dynamics, this paper examines the impact of polluting emissions standards on trajectories of clean technologies implemented by firms subject to competitive selection and supply chain pressure. The paper gives guidance to the conditions of dynamic ... more
Targets: Policy makers or regulators, Business or company managers, Technical staff in companies (engineers, technicians, ..)
Author(s): Saint Jean, Maïder (GREThA, Bordeaux IV University, Pessac, France)
Research report, Case study, Article English
Innovation of circuit/path operations in ATM networks: self-sizing network
This paper proposes self-sizing network operations to innovate circuit/path operations in ATM networks. The self-sizing network is a new concept in traffic operations that uses rapid and flexible resource assignment to meet the traffic demand. These operations support functions such as traffic ... more
Targets: Policy makers or regulators, Business or company managers, Other
Author(s): Kato, Y., Nakagawa, S.-I., Saito, H.
Article English
UMTS universal mobile telecommunications system: Development of standards for the third generation
The standards for the UMTS Universal Mobile Telecommunications System are being developed by the ETSI (European Telecommunications Standardisation Institute). The UMTS is a set of standards aimed at the global market. It will be a real third generation Global System for Mobile Communications adding ... more
Targets: Business or company managers, Technical staff in companies (engineers, technicians, ..), Other
Author(s): Samukic, A (Ericcson Radio Systems, Sophia Antipolis, France)
Article English
Chemical and environmental sampling: quality through accreditation, certification and industrial standards
In the CEN/STAR Trends Analysis workshop on Sampling, initiated by request of the Nordic Innovation Centre, specially invited experts provided presentations on demands about regulation concerning sampling quality, sampling standard developments, quality assurance systems and practical experience ... more
Targets: Policy makers or regulators, Other
Author(s): Komppa, Veikko (VTT Processes, Vtt, Finland), Laine-Ylijoki, Jutta (VTT Processes, Vtt, Finland), Schreiber, Mads, Peter (Nordic Innovation Centre, Oslo, Norway), Wahlström, Margareta (VTT Processes, Vtt, Finland)
Article English
The advanced information technology innovation roadmap
The AIT (Advanced Information Technology for the European Manufacturing Industry) initiative is focusing on IT innovations and their integration in the users enterprise. This is achieved through the deployment of the AIT Innovation Cycle starting with the AIT strategic planning (development of a ... more
Targets: Researchers (from university, business schools, research institutes), Technical staff in companies (engineers, technicians, ..)
Author(s): Segarra, G. (Renault DOII, France)
Article English
Study on the standard system of the application of information technology in China's construction industry
With the acceleration of the process of global revolution in science and technology led by information technology, the human society is in a gradual transition from an industrial society into an information society. As a new productivity with the greatest potential at the present age, information ... more
Targets: Business or company managers, Technical staff in companies (engineers, technicians, ..)
Author(s): Shang, Chunming (Dept of Construction Management, School of Civil Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China), Wang, Yaowu (School of Management, Harbin Institute of Technology, China)
Research report, Case study, Article English
Sharing innovation: the case for technology standards in health professions education
Information technologies have provided fertile ground for innovation in healthcare education, but too often these innovations have been limited in scope and impact. One way of addressing these limitations is the development of common and open technology standards to scale innovation across ... more
Targets: Policy makers or regulators, Other
Author(s): Detmer, Don, E. (American Medical Informatics Association, Bethseda Maryland and University of Virginia, USA), Ellaway, Rachel (Northern Ontario School of Medecine, Canada), Green, Peter (MedBiquitous; The John Hopkins University School of Management, Maryland, USA), Smothers, Valerie (MedBiquitous, Maryland, USA)
Article English
The usefulness of social capital in assessing the welfare effects of private and third-party certification food safety policy standards: Trust and networks.
The aim of this paper is to assess the welfare effects of the newest trends in food safety policies characterised by the shift from public to private intervention.
Food safety policies are analysed through concepts of new economic sociology, with a critical review of the literature on social ... more
Targets: Policy makers or regulators, Researchers (from university, business schools, research institutes)
Author(s): Hingley, Martin (School of Management, Harper Adams University College, Newport, UK), Lindgreen, Adam (Hull University Business School, UK), Sodano, Valeria (Dept of Agricultural Economics and Policy, University of Naples Federico II, Portici, Italy)
Research report, Article English
Networks of innovators: a longitudinal perspective
This paper investigates how evolutions of complex technologies and networks of innovators affect the development of emerging innovations. Building upon the theories of technological evolution and socio-organizational dynamics, we develop propositions to examine the stability and change of networks ... more
Targets: Researchers (from university, business schools, research institutes), Business or company managers, Technical staff in companies (engineers, technicians, ..)
Author(s): Roberts, Edward B. (MIT Sloan School of Management, National Universit of Singapore), Soh, Pek-Hooi (NUS Business School, National University of Singapore)
Research report, Case study, Article English
The coevolution of society and multimedia technology - Issues in predicting the future innovation and use of a ubiquitous technology
Multimedia technology is becoming ubiquitous in modem society, and it is having profound effects on institutions and expectations. The technology is very fluid, and development is shaped by a great many social factors. Prediction of the coevolution of multimedia technology and society needs to be ... more
Targets: Researchers (from university, business schools, research institutes), Business or company managers, Technical staff in companies (engineers, technicians, ..), Other
Author(s): Stewart, James (University of Edinburgh, UK), Williams, Robin (University of Edinburgh, UK)
Research report, Article English
Public technological aid to support compliance to environmental standards
Public aid to encourage the adoption of superior emissions-control technologies is combined with monitoring to achieve a predetermined level of compliance to firm-specific abatement standards. Technological aid serves as an indirect enforcement tool in the sense that its provision reduces the ... more
Targets: Policy makers or regulators, Business or company managers, Technical staff in companies (engineers, technicians, ..)
Author(s): Stranlund, John K. (Depart of Resource Economics, University of Massachusetts, USA)
Article English
Information technology, innovation and supply chain structure
The link between IT, innovation and supply chain structure is central here. This article is divided into three parts. First, a theoretical analysis of the role of IT in innovation processes. Actually, it involves the total innovation of the supply chain, not merely logistic innovation. The ... more
Targets: Business or company managers, Technical staff in companies (engineers, technicians, ..)
Author(s): Stroeken, Jan H.M. (Eindhoven Centre for Innovation Studies, Eindhoven University of Technology, Netherlands)
Research report, Case study, Article English
Product strategy for innovators in markets with network effects
This paper examines four alternative product strategies available to an innovating firm in markets with network effects: single-product monopoly, technology licensing, product-line extension, and a combination of licensing and product-line extension. We address three questions. First, what factors ... more
Targets: Researchers (from university, business schools, research institutes), Business or company managers
Author(s): Cao, H. Henry (Kenan-Flagler Business School, University of North Carolina, USA), Sun, Baohong (Kenan-Flagler Business School, University of North Carolina, USA), Xie, Jinhong (Warrington College of Business Administration, University of Florida, USA)
Research report, Article English
Innovation in service internationalization: the crucial role of the frantrepreneur
This paper introduces the concept of a new entrepreneurial role in services that we call the frantrepreneur. This is based on two case studies of the internationalization of two US franchisors, one in temporary services (Sweden) and the other in computer training (Australia). The frantrepreneur  ... more
Targets: Business or company managers, Other
Author(s): Johnston, Robert (Warwick Business School, Warwick Universit, UK; Roskilde University, Denmark), Mattsson, Jan (University of Soutern Queensland, Australia), Millet, Bruce (University of Soutern Queensland, Australia), Sundbo, Jon (Roskilde University, Denmark)
Case study, Article English
Economic growth with standardized contracts
This paper is motivated by the observation that individuals sometimes tend to use a contract just because others have done so before. To put it more technically, the cost of executing a transaction under an existing standard seems to be much lower than doing so under a new innovation. The economic ... more
Targets: Policy makers or regulators, Business or company managers
Author(s): Sussman, Oran (Dept of Economics, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev and MCER, Beer Shera, Israel)
Research report, Case study, Article English
Outcome based regulations and innovative food processes: An Australian perspective
Many influences drive food companies to remain competitive globally by delivering to the consumer food that is safe, healthy and nutritious. Innovative food processes such as high pressure, pulsed electric field, ultrasonics, cool plasma and other emerging technologies are possible mechanisms to ... more
Targets: Policy makers or regulators, Business or company managers, Technical staff in companies (engineers, technicians, ..)
Author(s): Porter, W. (New South Wales Food Authority, Australia), Sahllin, C.L. (New South Wales Food Authority, Australia), Szabo, E.A. (New South Wales Food Authority, Australia)
Article English
Reflections on "Profiting from Innovation"
How innovators capture value from innovation is an enduring question. Two decades ago an effort was made in "Profiting from Innovation" to unlock this conundrum. This paper reflects on the framework offered, identifies and reviews the analytical foundations of the theory, and recognizes subsequent ... more
Targets: Researchers (from university, business schools, research institutes), Students, Technical staff in companies (engineers, technicians, ..)
Author(s): Teece, David J. (Institute of Management, Innovation and Organization, Haas School of Business, University of California, USA)
Research report, Case study, Article English
Impact of international standards and initiatives on proficiency testing for medical laboratories
This paper is intended to briefly discuss several recent initiatives regarding External Quality Assessment (or Proficiency Testing) (PT/EQA) for medical laboratories in various parts of the world. While a brief paper cannot be comprehensive for all regions, it is possible to present some new ... more
Targets: Other
Author(s): Tholen, Daniel W. (Statistical Consulting, MI, USA)
Article English
A calculus for services innovation
Innovation in the services area - especially in the electronic services (e-services) domain - can be characterized by six decision-oriented attributes: decision-driven, information-based, real-time, continuously-adaptive, customer- centric and computationally-intensive. These attributes constitute ... more
Targets: Researchers (from university, business schools, research institutes), Business or company managers, Technical staff in companies (engineers, technicians, ..), Other
Author(s): Berg, Daniel (Dept of Decision Sciences and Engineering Systems, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York, USA ), Tien, James N. (Dept of Decision Sciences and Engineering Systems, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York, USA )
Article English
Standardization process of systems technologies: Creating a balance between competition and cooperation
Many firms are experimenting with how to standardize new technologies. They may use proprietary technologies for their products and services, and let them compete in the market selection. Alternatively, they can cooperate to jointly set a standard and experiment with combinations of market process  ... more
Targets: Business or company managers, Technical staff in companies (engineers, technicians, ..)
Author(s): Van Wegberg, Marc (Faculty of Economics and Business Administration, Maastricht University, Netherland)
Article English
An innovative method to assess negotiation skills necessary for quality improvement
Quality improvement (QI) initiatives require leaders who can facilitate change through negotiation. Although a few education programs teach these skills, there is no published literature on methods to assess competency in negotiation. This study's purpose was to determine the psychometric ... more
Targets: Other
Author(s): Bennet, Kevin E. (Division of Engineering, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA), Gupta, Priyanka (Mayo Medical School, Rochester, MN, USA), Varkey, Prathibha (Division of Preventive and Occupational Medicine, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Rochester, MN, USA)
Article English
Are standards and regulations of organic farming moving away from small farmers' knowledge?
Organic farming is a promising agricultural method with positive effects on the human ecological and social environment. Governments have taken over a major role in defining organic farming by creating legal standards. Many countries all over the world have established a certification and ... more
Targets: Policy makers or regulators, Other
Author(s): Kilcher, Lucas (Research Institute Organic Farming Organic Agriculture, Frick, Switzerland), Schmidt, Hanspeter (Attorney-at-Law, Oberlandesgericht Karlsruhe, Germany), Vogl, Christian R. (Institute for Organic Farming, University for Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences, Vienna, Austria)
Article English
The triumph of technology-based standards
In the following article, Professor Wagner chooses a heretofore unpopular approach to pollution control, technology-based standards, as her favorite innovation in environmental law. In selecting technology-based standards, Professor Wagner has chosen to focus on the fundamental or base innovations ... more
Targets: Policy makers or regulators, Technical staff in companies (engineers, technicians, ..)
Author(s): Wagner, Wendy, E. (Case Western Reserve University School of Law and Weatherhead School of Management, OH, USA)
Article English
Regulating labour standards via supply chains: Combining public/private interventions to improve workplace compliance
Concern over global labour standards has led to a profusion of non-governmental forms of regulation. Systematic evaluation of these systems has been very limited to date. This article empirically explores an innovative system to regulate labour standards in the US garment industry combining public ... more
Targets: Policy makers or regulators, Business or company managers
Author(s): Mallo, Carlos (Ernst & Young), Weil, David (Boston University, MA, USA)
Case study, Article English
The Internet, innovation, and intellectual property policy
The Internet continues to transform the information industries and challenge intellectual property law to develop a competition policy strategy to regulate networked products. In particular, inventors of "information platforms" that support the viewing of content - be they instant messaging ... more
Targets: Policy makers or regulators, Business or company managers, Technical staff in companies (engineers, technicians, ..)
Author(s): Weiser, Philip J. (University of Colorado School of Law and Dept of Interdisciplinary Telecommunications, USA)
Article English
A unified economic model of standard diffusion: The impact of standardization cost, network effects, and network topology
This paper is motivated by the following question: What drives the diffusion of a communication standard and what results can we expect? Past literature provides many instructive but mostly unrelated answers. Frequent findings are startup problems, penguin effects, and tendencies toward monopoly. ... more
Targets: Policy makers or regulators, Other
Author(s): Beimborn, Daniel (Institute of Information Systems, Johann Wolfgang Goethe University, Frankfurt, Germany), König, Wolfgang (Institute of Information Systems, Johann Wolfgang Goethe University, Frankfurt, Germany), Weitzel, Tim (Dept of Information Systems, Otto Friedrich University, Bamberg, Germany)
Case study, Article English
Innovation and control in standards architectures: The rise and fall of Japan's PC-98
For more than a decade NEC dominated the Japanese PC market with its PC-98 architecture, which was incompatible both with its major Japanese rivals and the global PC standard. However, NEC was powerless to prevent the introduction of Japanese versions of Windows 3.1 and 95 that ran on its ... more
Targets: Business or company managers, Technical staff in companies (engineers, technicians, ..), Other
Author(s): Dedrick, Jason (Center for Research on Information Technology and Organizations (CRITO), University of California, USA), West, Joel (Center for Research on Information Technology and Organizations (CRITO), University of California, USA)
Case study, Article English
Impact of technological innovation in animal nutrition
Nutritional science serves both animal agriculture and the public consuming animal products. A past failure to demonstrate the relevance of work to the consumer has led in the UK to a reduction in unrestricted funding which now threatens scientific independence. The risk which innovation sometimes ... more
Targets: Policy makers or regulators, Other
Author(s): Whittemore, C.T. (Institute of Ecology and Resource Management, University of Edinburgh, UK)
Article English
Standard competition: Is collaborative strategy necessary in shaping the smart card market?
This paper is concerned with the standard competition in the three most outstanding innovation cases of videocassette recorder [VCR; video home system (VHS)/Betamax standard competition], Windows operating system for personal computers (PC; Windows standard competition), and smart cards (smart ... more
Targets: Researchers (from university, business schools, research institutes), Business or company managers, Technical staff in companies (engineers, technicians, ..)
Author(s): Wonglimpiyara, Jarunee (The National Science and Technology Development Agency, The Ministry of Science and Technology, Pathumthani, USA)
Case study, Article English
How to profit from de facto standard-based competition: Learning from Japanese firms' experiences
This paper discusses strategic issues related to technological de facto standards. Based on our historical and empirical analyses of 13 cases mainly observed in the Japanese audio-visual and IT-related fields, we pose the following six propositions on de facto standard-based competition:
1. ... more
Targets: Business or company managers, Technical staff in companies (engineers, technicians, ..)
Author(s): Kurokawa, Sam (Dept of Management, LeBow College of Business, Drexel University, PA, USA), Yamada, Hideo (Business School, Waseda University, Tokyo, Japan)
Case study, Article English
Promoting green innovation or prolonging the existing technology - Regulation and technological change in the chlor-alkali industry in Japan and Europe
A case study of the chlor-alkali industry in Western Europe and Japan is presented examining the effects of environmental regulation on technological change. In Western Europe, standards were set for mercury emissions from chlor-alkali plants, which were gradually tightened subsequently. Research ... more
Targets: Policy makers or regulators, Business or company managers, Technical staff in companies (engineers, technicians, ..)
Author(s): Yarime, Masaru (Depart of Human and Engineered Environmental Studies, Graduate School of Frontier Sciences, University of Tokyo, Japan)
Article English
Reverse innovative design - an integrated product design methodology
Today's product designer is being asked to develop high quality, innovative products at an ever increasing pace. To meet this need, an intensive search is underway for advanced design methodologies that facilitate the acquisition of design knowledge and creative ideas for later reuse. Additionally, ... more
Targets: Business or company managers, Technical staff in companies (engineers, technicians, ..)
Author(s): Chen, Lei (College of Computer Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, PR China), Chen, Zhiyang (College of Software Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, PR China), Liu, Hongzheng (College of Computer Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, PR China), Pan, Xiang (College of Software Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, PR China), Ye, Xiuzi (College of Computer Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, PR China and SolidWorks Corporation, MA, USA), Zhang, Sanyuan (College of Computer Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, PR China)
Article English
Systemic approach to innovations - standards vs software
In this paper we tried to apply some system theory in the complex problems of intellectual property management by presenting some relevant current issues regarding standards and possibilities of computer software protection. Systemic approach to involvement in lucrative business of software is ... more
Targets: Policy makers or regulators, Business or company managers, Technical staff in companies (engineers, technicians, ..)
Author(s): Marn, Jure (Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University of Maribor, Slovenia), Zenko, Zdenka (Faculty of Economics and Business, University of Maribor, Slovenia)
Research report, Article English
Migration to open-standard interorganizational systems: Network effects, switching costs, and path dependency
As firms seek to improve coordination through the use of electronic interorganizational systems (IOS), open standards are becoming increasingly important. To better understand the process of standards diffusion, we investigate firms¿ migration from proprietary or less-open IOS (i.e., electronic ... more
Targets: Business or company managers, Technical staff in companies (engineers, technicians, ..)
Author(s): Gurbaxani, Vijay (The Paul Merage School of Business, University of California, USA), Kraemer, L. (The Paul Merage School of Business, University of California, USA), Xu, Sean Xin (School of Business and Management, Hong Kong, PR China), Zhu, Kevin (The Rady School of Management, University of California, USA)
Case study, Article English
Indigenous innovation and globalization - The challenge for China¿s standardization strategy
A study that examines defining characteristics of the evolving Chinese innovation and standards system and explores possible impacts for China as well as the global economy. China considers standardization to be an essential tool for improving its innovative capacity, yet very little is known about ... more
Targets: Policy makers or regulators, Researchers (from university, business schools, research institutes), Students
Author(s): Ernst, Dieter (East-West Center, Honolulu, USA)
Research report English
Reviewing community innovation policy in a changing world
The aim of this communication is to identify gaps and propose policy orientations on how to fill them.
Targets: Policy makers or regulators
Author(s): European Commission
Policy document or policy guideline English, French
The impact of standardization and standards on innovation
This study, authored by the Marketing and Innovation Department of AFNOR (French Association for Standardization), comprises two dimensions:
Firstly, a macroeconomic analysis in order to assess the relatationship between standards and growth in the long term. This analysis is based on a ... more
Targets: Policy makers or regulators, Business or company managers
Author(s): Miotti, Hakima (AFNOR Group, France)
Case study English, French
Decision-support systems for planning of management and manufacturing (an innovative project)
A particular solution to the classical problem of control of commercialization in complex plants based on economically efficient computer systems for in-line and long-term planning is proposed for the first lime. Such systems are especially important in a market economy, where one has to follow ... more
Targets: Policy makers or regulators, Business or company managers
Author(s): Kuz'min, V.V.
Article English, Russian
The contribution of standardization to innovation
This article aims at demonstrating that standardization facilitates innovation and that it constitutes a key element of strategies for putting products onto the market. Standardization is also an irreplaceable disseminating tool for innovation.
Targets: Business or company managers
Author(s): Peyrat, Oliver (Director General, AFNOR, France)
Article French
Importance of standards and patents for the valorization of innovation
What are the necessary conditions for innovation to play a key role in modern society? How can we learn from successful experiences but also from failures, bearing in mind the specificity of the French sytsem for research and for stimulating innovation?
Targets: Policy makers or regulators
Author(s): Birraux, Claude (Member of French Parliament), Le Deaut, Jean-Yves (Member of French Parliament)
Policy document or policy guideline French
Business intelligence guidelines for research (File 2)
This guideline has several objectives. It aims at stressing the importance of the role of public research and at contributing to a better integration by the research community of the benefits of its activities in relation to public interest. It also aims at contributing to the definition of a ... more
Targets: Researchers (from university, business schools, research institutes)
Author(s): French interministerial delegation for business intelligence
Manual French
Innovation - a major stake for France (recommendation 12)
A policy for the protection of rights has become a strategic element of a country's ability to have an efficient policy for promoting innovation.
Targets: Policy makers or regulators
Author(s): Beylat, Jean-Luc (French government), Tambourin, Pierre (French government)
Policy document or policy guideline French
Producing medical objectivity: an experimental, replicative system of standardization
As seen through studies in medical sociology and though the concerns expressed by health-care professionals, standardizing medical practices is the key to the theoretical and practical thought devoted to the production of scientific objectivity. Till present, analyses have given a special place to ... more
Targets: Policy makers or regulators, Researchers (from university, business schools, research institutes), Other
Author(s): Tournay, Virginie (Social studies of medicine, McGill university et CRISTO-PACTE (CNRS), Grenoble, France)
Article French
Standardization in support of innovation
Standardization issues related to innovation
Targets: Other
Author(s): Kertesz, Christine (AFNOR, France)
Presentation French
Standardization and innovation are not contradictory
The role of standards within the innovation system is highly controversial. Some people even claim that the era of standardization has come to a close. Other people argue that it is a rigid and petrified rule-setting system which impedes the necessary flexibility for inventions and innovations. The ... more
Targets: Policy makers or regulators, Business or company managers, Technical staff in companies (engineers, technicians, ..)
Author(s): Konrad, Anne, Zloczysti, Petra
Article German
Potentials and limitations of standardization of shop floor IT based on examples from semiconductor industry
Complex production processes, high pressure for innovations, the dynamic market and high quality requirements are important drivers for integrated information flows in semiconductor production. In order to reach the required level of integration in spite of a large variety of equipment and software ... more
Targets: Policy makers or regulators, Business or company managers
Author(s): Dreiss, Philipp, Meier, Matthias, Seidelmann, Joachim
Article German
A timely response to changing markets
Guideline and policy document explaining the content and purpose of a new technical deliverable other than a standard, called "Prassi di riferimento" (A timely response to changing markets).
Targets: Policy makers or regulators, Researchers (from university, business schools, research institutes), Business or company managers, Technical staff in companies (engineers, technicians, ..)
Author(s): Lensi, Ruggero (UNI ¿ Italian Organization for Standardization), Monteverdi, Alberto (UNI ¿ Italian Organization for Standardization)
Policy document or policy guideline Italian
UNI Website - Special section dedicated to INNOVATION
This is the special section of the UNI Website dedicated to national standardization policy in support of innovation, including special projects and the newly created technical deliverables, other than standards, that are focused on innovation (called in Italian "Prassi di riferimento").
Targets: Policy makers or regulators, Researchers (from university, business schools, research institutes), Business or company managers, Technical staff in companies (engineers, technicians, ..)
Author(s): External Relations, Development and Innovation Management (UNI ¿ Italian Organization for Standardization)
Other Italian
Technological surveillance in the management of R&D and innovation projects: resources and tools
Technological surveillance systems have become a fundamental tool for organisations that manage R&D and innovation projects. The publication of the UNE 166006:2006 EX standard¿Management of R&D and innovation: technological surveillance systems systematises the manner in which this activity is set ... more
Targets: Business or company managers, Technical staff in companies (engineers, technicians, ..)
Author(s): Durán, Javier Muñoz, Martínez, María Marín, Vallejo Triano, José
Article Italian
Innovation management - selection of successful companies
The ability to innovate, to ensure a steady flow of innovations and build innovative activity becomes an important management task, the solution of which can serve standards. Standards may considerably facilitate the approaches to innovation management at the corporate level and can be an important ... more
Targets: Business or company managers
Author(s): Khokhlyavin, Sergey (Energy management & innovation, Finex Ltd.)
Article Russian
UNE 166002 : 2006: The standardization and systematization of R&D&I - the standard and the importance of the ICT for its implementation
This article analyses one of the first innovation management standards worldwide: UNE 166002:2006.
It begins with a brief description of the objectives of the various standards from the same family. The
great importance of the Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) for a ... more
Targets: Business or company managers, Technical staff in companies (engineers, technicians, ..)
Author(s): Fa Casadesús, Marti (Industrial University of Girona, Spain), Mauri, Moisès Mir (Industrial University of Girona, Spain)
Article Spanish