Formula, Display

Mathematical equation, expression, or formula that is to be displayed as a block (callout) within the narrative flow.


A graphic image showing the formatted mathematical material may be provided as a fallback in case the rendering environment does not support MathML. See the example.


content-type Type of Content
id Identifier
originator Originator
specific-use Specific Use
xml:lang Language

Model Description

Any combination of:

This element may be contained in:

<ack>, <app>, <app-group>, <bio>, <body>, <boxed-text>, <disp-formula-group>, <disp-quote>, <fig>, <glossary>, <license-p>, <named-content>, <non-normative-example>, <non-normative-note>, <notes>, <p>, <ref-list>, <sec>, <styled-content>, <supplementary-material>, <td>, <term>, <term-display>, <term-sec>, <th>


In the following example, the <alternatives> element is used to wrap a mathematical expression encoded in MathML with a graphic image of the same expression for use in environments where MathML is not supported.

	    <mml:mo> &int; </mml:mo>
	    <mml:mn> 0 </mml:mn>
	    <mml:mn> 1 </mml:mn>
	      <mml:mi> &ExponentialE; </mml:mi>
	      <mml:mi> x </mml:mi>
	    <mml:mo> &InvisibleTimes; </mml:mo>
	      <mml:mo> &DifferentialD; </mml:mo>
	      <mml:mi> x </mml:mi>

      <graphic xlink:href="images/integral">
	<alt-text>The integral from zero to one of e to the power x
	times dx.</alt-text>
	  <copyright-statement>&copy; 1998-2003 W3C &reg; (MIT, ERCIM,
	  Keio); used by permission</copyright-statement>
	  <copyright-holder>W3C &reg; (MIT, ERCIM,

The graphic rendering of the mathematical expression is:

(MathML example and graphic from Mathematical Markup Language (MathML) Version 2.0 (Second Edition), W3C Recommendation 21 October 2003, ed. David Carlisle et al., © 1998-2003 W3C® (MIT, ERCIM, Keio), all rights reserved. Used by permission.)