Geotechnical investigation and testing -- Laboratory testing of soil -- Part 2: Determination of density of fine-grained soil
ISO/TS 17892-2:2004 specifies methods of test for the determination of the bulk and dry density of intact soil or rock within the scope of the geotechnical investigations according to prEN 1997-1 and prEN 1997-2.
The bulk density of a soil is useful in the determination of the in-situ overburden stresses at various depth (geostatic stresses). Furthermore, bulk and dry density can qualitatively describe the mechanical characteristics of a soil via empirical relationships which are to be found in the technical literature. Such relationships should be used only as guidelines and should be supplemented by direct measurements of the mechanical characteristics.
This document describes three methods:
a) linear measurements method;
b) immersion in water method;
c) fluid displacement method.
The linear measurement method is suitable for the determination of the density of a specimen of cohesive soil of regular shape, including specimens prepared for other tests. The specimens used are normally in the form of either rectangular prisms or straight cylinders.
The immersion in water method covers the determination of the bulk density and dry density of a specimen of natural or compacted soil by measuring its mass in air and its apparent mass when suspended in water. The method is employable whenever lumps of material of suitable size can be obtained.
The fluid displacement method covers the determination of the bulk density and dry density of a specimen of soil by measuring mass and displacement of water or other appropriate fluid after immersion. The method is employable whenever lumps of material of suitable size can be obtained.