ISO 11228-2:2007
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Ergonomics -- Manual handling -- Part 2: Pushing and pulling

This standard was last reviewed* in 2010.

*ISO standards are reviewed every five years.


ISO 11228-2:2007 gives the recommended limits for whole-body pushing and pulling. It provides guidance on the assessment of risk factors considered important to manual pushing and pulling, allowing the health risks for the working population to be evaluated. The recommendations apply to the healthy adult working population and provide reasonable protection to the majority of this population. These guidelines are based on experimental studies of push-pull tasks and associated levels of musculoskeletal loading, discomfort/pain, and endurance/fatigue.

Pushing and pulling, as defined in ISO 11228-2:2007, is restricted to the following: whole-body force exertions (i.e. while standing/walking); actions performed by one person; forces applied by two hands; forces used to move or restrain an object; forces applied in a smooth and controlled way; forces applied without the use of external support(s); forces applied on objects located in front of the operator; forces applied in an upright position (not sitting).

ISO 11228-2:2007 is intended to provide information for designers, employers, employees and others involved in the design or redesign of work, tasks, products and work organization.


  • Document published on: 2007-04-01
    Edition: 1 (Monolingual) ICS: 13.180
    Status: Published Stage: 90.60 (2015-09-17)
    TC/SC: ISO/TC 159/SC 3 Number of Pages: 65
  • No revision information available

  • No corrigenda or amendments available

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